Where did you get the questions/scales from and what are they assessing?

I am going to be highly critical of this section, as I’ve warned all semester long. Do not be vague here.

Document criteria:

  • Minimum 1500 words
  • Must contain explicit subsections appropriate to paradigm
  • Stating your method is not enough. You must go further.
    • If you’re doing interviews, we need to see a guide with citations and critical analysis
    • If you’re analyzing a tool, we need significant details and visualization
    • Must say WHY you’re choosing your method, CITE it, DEFEND it
  • Must contain explicit data analysis plan
    • “I’m going to read” is not an analysis plan
    • If you’re doing qualitative analysis, you must lay out your theoretical framework and explain how you will interpret and arrive at your answers
    • If you are doing quantitative research, we need an explicit discussion of how you assembled your study. Questionnaire? Where did you get the questions/scales from and what are they assessing? How are they evaluated (likert scale? semantic differential?)?
  • Minimum 5 citations

Attached is the ppt of methods in my class session for reference

Selecting Methods of Data Collection

Kumar: Research Methodology Chapter 9

Prepared by Stephanie Fleischer

authored by Stephanie Fleischer © SAGE publications Ltd 2014

Topics covered

Differences in methods of collecting data

Major sources of information gathering

Collecting data using primary sources

Observation

The interview

The questionnaire

Advantages and disadvantages

Types of questions

Formulating effective questions

Constructing a research instrument in quantitative research

Methods of data collection in qualitative research

Collecting data using secondary sources

authored by Stephanie Fleischer © SAGE publications Ltd 2014

Differences in methods of collecting data in quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods research

Quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods classification depends on the answers to the following questions:

What philosophical approach is underpinning the research approach?

How was the information collected? Was the format structured or unstructured/flexible or a combination of the both?

Were the questions or issues discussed during data collection predetermined or developed during data collection?

authored by Stephanie Fleischer © SAGE publications Ltd 2014

Differences in methods of collecting data in quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods research continued

How was the information gathered recorded? Was it in a descriptive, narrative, categorical, quantitative form or on a scale?

How was the information analysed? Was it a descriptive, categorical or numerical analysis?

How will the findings be communicated? In a descriptive or analytical manner?

How many different methods were used in undertaking the study?

authored by Stephanie Fleischer © SAGE publications Ltd 2014

Insert Figure 9.1 Methods of data collection

authored by Stephanie Fleischer © SAGE publications Ltd 2014

Major sources of information gathering

Primary data: The researcher undertakes the data collection

Secondary data: The data is already available and can be reanalysed

authored by Stephanie Fleischer © SAGE publications Ltd 2014

Observation

Watching and listening to interactions

Participant observation

Non-participant observation

Natural

Controlled

Recording of observations:

Narrative recording

Categorical recording

Recording on electronic devices

Effects that could affect observations:

Hawthorne effect: Participants are aware of the observation and change their behaviour

Elevation effect: Researcher over-uses a particular scale for recording

Halo effect: Researcher bias towards a particular participant

authored by Stephanie Fleisher © SAGE publications Ltd 2014

The interview

Questioning people

Unstructured interviews: Freedom in structure, content, wording and order of questions

Structured interviews: Interview schedule predetermines the questions, wording and order

authored by Stephanie Fleischer © SAGE publications Ltd 2014

The questionnaire

Written list of questions completed by the respondent

Mail or postal questionnaire (covering letter)

Collective administration

Online questionnaire

Administration in a public place

authored by Stephanie Fleischer © SAGE publications Ltd 2014

Choose between interview schedule and questionnaire

Consider the following:

The nature of the investigation

The geographical distribution of the study population

The type of study population

authored by Stephanie Fleischer © SAGE publications Ltd 2014

Strengths and weaknesses of questionnaires

Strengths

Convenience:

Saves time

Inexpensive:

Saves human and financial resources

Offer greater anonymity

No face-to-face action

Likelihood to obtain more accurate information on sensitive questions

Weaknesses

Limited application

Low response rate

Self-selecting bias

Lack of opportunity to clarify issues

No opportunity for spontaneous responses

Responses may be influenced by the response to other questions

Others can influence the answers

Responses cannot be supplemented with other information

authored by Stephanie Fleischer © SAGE publications Ltd 2014

Advantages and disadvantages of interviews

Advantages

More appropriate for complex situations

Useful for collecting in-depth information

Information can be supplemented

Questions can be explained

Has a wider application

Disadvantages

Time consuming and expensive

Quality of data depends on

Quality of interaction

Quality of interviewer

Could vary when multiple researchers are involved

Possibility of researcher bias

authored by Stephanie Fleischer © SAGE publications Ltd 2014

Types of questions

Open-ended questions

Advantages:

Provide in-depth information

Greater variety of information

No investigator bias

Disadvantages

Analysis is more difficult if answers need to be classified

Loss of information if respondents cannot express themselves

Possible interviewer bias

Closed questions

Advantages:

Easy to answer

Easy to analyse due to ready-made categories

Disadvantages:

Information lacks depths and variety

Greater possibility of investigator bias

Answers are selected from a list and may not reflect respondents opinion

authored by Stephanie Fleischer © SAGE publications Ltd 2014

Formulating effective questions

Use easy and every day language

Avoid ambiguous questions

Avoid double-barrelled questions

Avoid leading questions

Avoid questions based on assumptions

authored by Stephanie Fleischer © SAGE publications Ltd 2014

Constructing a research instrument in quantitative research

Personal and sensitive questions

The order of the questions

Pre-testing a research instrument

Pre-requisites for data collection:

Motivation to share required information

Clear understanding of the questions

Possession of the required information

authored by Stephanie Fleischer © SAGE publications Ltd 2014

Methods of data collection in qualitative research

Unstructured interviews

In-depth interviews

Focus group interviews

Narratives

Oral histories

Observation

authored by Stephanie Fleischer © SAGE publications Ltd 2014

Collecting data using secondary sources

Government or corporate websites

Earlier research

Personal records

Mass media

Possible problems of secondary data:

Validity and reliability

Personal bias

Availability

Format

authored by Stephanie Fleischer © SAGE publications Ltd 2014

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