Discussion Question 5
Discussion: Norwegian Prison Experience (need information to complete discussion question 5 information is below)
In the 1980s, the United States began to adopt tougher drug laws resulting in more frequent and longer prison sentences. Implemented in the name of combating rising drug use and protecting traditional values, these laws have resulted in a staggering number of incarcerations for non-violent crimes, disproportionately affecting urban minorities and the poor. Consider these statistics:
-“The United States makes up about 5% of the world’s population and has 21% of the world’s prisoners” (NAACP, 2017)
-“For every 100,000 Americans in each race or gender group, there are 478 white males, 3,023 black males, 51 white females, and 129 black females incarcerated in state or federal prison.” (Fellner, Parker, & McFarland, 2014)
– “Immigration offenses account for over 40 percent of all federal criminal prosecutions and almost 30 percent of new admissions to the federal prison system.” (Fellner, Parker, & McFarland, 2014).
For some time, opponents of “Get Tough” policies have argued that prisons were counterproductive and increased the likelihood of recidivism post-release. In fact, they have argued that the prison experience itself predisposes prisoners to greater levels of criminality through peer observation and learned behavior.
On the other hand, those who have supported these get-tough policies have continued to argue that prison serves as the best deterrent to future criminal activity.
You may be most familiar with the U.S. corrections system if you live in the United States, but most countries have their own unique approach to incarceration. By conducting international comparisons, you can evaluate outcomes and learn or share best practices from different philosophies and approaches. In this week’s discussion, you will examine a correctional philosophy that is vastly different from that of the United States and consider how you might measure its outcomes in order to compare them to U.S. outcomes.
- Review the video, Luxury Prison: Serving Time with Amenities in the Learning Resources.
- Research has demonstrated that prison experiences impact post-release behavior and overall public safety. Consider what specific effects the Norwegian system might have when the offenders are released.
Explain what effects the Norwegian prison experience might have on the community when offenders are released back into the community. If you wanted to test your hypothesis, how would you study and measure those effects?
Discussion Questions 7
Discussion 1: Comparing Research Designs in a Venn Diagram
Research designs systematize the research process and give it direction. In other words, they provide structure to scientific work. There are many types of designs used in research, all with specific advantages and disadvantages, and research scenarios for which they are each more or less appropriate. The research design chosen depends on the aims of the study and the nature of the phenomenon. The design chosen, in turn, affects the results and how they may be interpreted.
For this Discussion, select two research designs to compare. Think about how they are similar and different and the advantages and disadvantages of each. Consider any differences that may occur if the designs were applied to the same research question.
By Day 3 of Week 7
Post a PowerPoint document with a comparison (similarities and differences) of the two research designs you selected using the Venn Diagram template provided in the Learning Resources. Describe the salient features, advantages, and disadvantages of each (at least 3 for each). Then state one potential research topic for which the research designs might be appropriate. Finally, in the Discussion area, explain how the approaches might affect the research outcomes. Be specific and support your response.
Discussion Question 8/1 Probability and Nonprobability Sampling
A sample is a finite part of a population whose properties are studied to gain information about the whole. When dealing with people, researchers define a sample as a set of respondents (people) selected from a larger population for the purpose of a survey. The difficulty in using sampling lies in planning: a sample’s generalizability must be evaluated and a sampling method must be chosen that will best suit the research needs in question.
Sampling methods are divided into two broad categories: probability and nonprobability. The difference between probability and nonprobability sampling is the selection technique employed. Probability sampling includes any method of sampling that utilizes some form of random selection. In order to have a random selection method within probability sampling, you must set up some process or procedure that assures that the different units in your population have equal probabilities of being chosen. Nonprobability sampling, then, does not involve random selection, so researchers cannot know ahead of time the probability of an element being chosen. Though you might be tempted to conclude that nonprobability samples cannot be representative of a population, this is not necessarily the case. When designing a sample or evaluating research that has used sampling, it is important to know the strengths and weaknesses of different types of sampling methods. The more a researcher or consumer of research knows about sampling methods, the better chance he or she has of making smart research decisions.
For this Discussion, select one type of probability sampling and one type of nonprobability sampling and think of potential strengths and weaknesses of each. Then consider ethical considerations that might arise when selecting a sampling method and how you might address them.
By Day 3 of Week 8
Post a description of the types of probability and nonprobability sampling you selected. Then describe two strengths and two weaknesses of each type of sampling. Finally, identify two ethical considerations that may factor into selecting a sampling method and explain how you might address these considerations.
Discussion 11: Spark 2: Reflection
At various times the use of quantitative methods have been compared and contrasted against qualitative methods in regard to which one are superior.
By Day 3 of Week 11 (Criminal Justice Master Level/ Class Tittle is Criminal Justice Research
Post the topics that you enjoyed learning about in this class the most and why. How might you apply them to your professional career?