please see attached for references
Reitz, K. R., & Klingele, C. M. (2019). Model Penal Code: Sentencing—Workable Limits on Mass Punishment. Crime and Justice, 48(1), 255-311.
The authors provide data that contains the number of people under death sentence, executed persons and the status of the death penalty at both state and federal level. The information was obtained from the department of corrections and jurisdiction who authorized death penalty in the year 2016.The authors also add that by the end of 2016 34 states and the federal government had authorized death penalties which includes Wyoming and New York. Further, the article provides some of the methods of executing capital punishment which includes state authorized lethal injection that acts as a method for execution, nitrogen hypoxia, firing squad, hanging, electrocution and hanging.
The article is of great importance for my study since it will provide statistics on the number of people subjected to capital punishment, states that allow capital punishment and the methods of executing the capital punishment.
Warrington, M. (2018) Justice and Capital Punishment
Warrington in his study is against capital punishment, he argues that it is violation right to life and right to liberty. The author also adds that this capital punishment may be legal but questions its ethics. The author draws to the attention that this type of punishment may be legal but unethical because it violates against the rights of humanity. Also innocent life’s can be taken and the state can use it as a weapon to subdue others into problems. The author adds that the government is supposed to protect its citizens. Warrington also argues that every human being has a value hence it is not acceptable to sacrifice a person’s life.
The article is of great importance in my study because it will provide information on other people’s perspective on the issue of capital punishment.
Seeds, C. (2018). Disaggregating LWOP: Life without parole, capital punishment, and mass incarceration in Florida, 1972–1995. Law & Society Review, 52(1), 172-205.
The author provides a brief history of capital punishment. He states that capital punishment began in the year 1601 in United States in Jamestown. The author points the five types of execution that were passed under the eight amendments such as the use of lethal gas, lethal injection, electrocution, firing squad and hanging. The author also claims that the purpose of capitals punishment was to prevent other people from committing such crimes. The authors also state that most states have currently abolished the use of capital punishment.
The article is important for my study because I will get to understand the history of capital punishment.
Burgason, K. A. (2010). Examination of the Death Penalty: Public Opinion of a Northeast Tennessee University Student Sample.
The author argues that some states have abolished the use of capital punishment and is just reserved for those cases that are concerned with murder. Death penalty is currently a controversial issue as it has resulted on a debate on whether it is an appropriate means of punishment. The author also argues that use of capital punishment has been used by decision and law makers, politicians as a platform of election. An example provided by the author is the General Social Survey which are some of the major polls that is focused on death penalty. The purpose of the author in this article was to provide citizen opinions on death penalty as a means of punishment. The study found out that some people support capital punishments especially on those crimes concerning murder.
The article is important for my study because I will get to understand the opinions of various individuals on the issue of capital punishment.
Johnson, D. T. (2015) Retention and reform in Japanese capital punishment U. Mich. JL Reform, 49, 853
The author argues that the overall trend of capital punishment is currently declining, for instance in United States seven states have abolished the use of capital punishment to execute justice. Further the author adds that the United States and Japan are the only developed nations that execute capital punishment.
The article is important for my study as it will provide information on how other states execute capital punishment apart from the United States.
Dieter, R. C. (2017). Changing Views on the Death Penalty in the United States. In Conference on Alternatives to the Death Penalty.
The author conducted a study on the changing views of death penalty in United States. The authors point out that death penalty achieved its purpose in the 1990’s and the number increased in 1998 and 1999.The public were the opinion that death penalty should be applied frequently .Further the author argues that capital punishment is currently on the decline in United States due to wrongful convictions and lethal injection process. Also the public support for death penalty has significantly declined.
The article is important for the study because it will provide more information of current trends on capital punishment.