Discuss what you consider to be modern challenges that you face that your predecessors did not.

Trace the evolution of your profession (or another chosen profession), field of study, or branch of service, starting in the Cold War era and continuing all the way to the present, globalized world. Discuss what you consider to be modern challenges that you face that your predecessors did not.

As you gather research, make sure to consider important social, political, and economic movements, such as the types of military, economic, and civil rights struggles that have been discussed in this course, and how that may have impacted the daily life of the profession you chose to write on.

Your final product should be one to two pages in length. You are required to use a minimum of two reputable sources, which must be cited and referenced using APA format. You are encouraged to use the CSU Online Library, but you are not required to do so. Refer to the tutorials mentioned in the previous assignments to help you decipher appropriate material to use in your research.

HY 1120, American History II 1 Cou rse Learning Outcomes for Unit VIII Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 7. Describe the modern challenges and opportunities concerning the United States around the globe. 7.1 Discuss how modern challenges have evolved daily life. Course/Unit Learning Outcomes Learning Activity 7 Unit Lesson Reading s: U.S. History Unit VIII Essay 7.1 Unit Lesson Reading s: U.S. History Unit VIII Essay Reading Assignment Through out this course, you will be provided with sections of content from the online resource U.S. History . You may be tested on your knowledge and understanding of the material listed below as well as the information presented in the unit lesson. Click on the l ink below to access your material. Click here to access this unit’s reading s from U.S. History . The chapter/section titles are also provided below. Section 30.4: Watergate: Nixon’s Domestic Nightmare Chapter 31 (Sections 31.1 –31.4) : From Cold War to Culture W ars, 1980 -2000 Chapter 32 (Sections 32.1 –32.4) : The Challenges of the Twenty -First Century Unit Lesson Globalization refers to a growing economic social, and cultural, dependence on a worldwide market, as opposed to a more traditional local, or even isolationist, economic strategy. This is one of the most significant concepts to consider when looking at this last unit. The goal of this lesson is to look at where the United States has been and compare that to where it is going.

Also significant to this unit is a look at personal experiences and expectations, namely what innovations and events have drastically evolved or outright changed daily life. One of the exercises in this unit will challenge you to look directly at an aspect of your daily life and consider which changes over the last 150 years are most significant to your day -to-day experiences. This will provide you with a perspective of the types of reforms, programs, and events and how they continue to affect people. Decades of Change With history being written every day, it is impossible to ensure coverage of the most recent of headlines, but when looking at the 4 decades of change in the United States between 1969 and 2018, it is clear that the generations of reform and civil rights had a significant impact, widening the scope and character of the average American. No longer was the voice of the white male overw helmingly dominant over that of any other citizen, and no longer were persons in power unaccountable, hidden, or protected from scandals that ushered in a new cultural dynamic across the nation. The American president has been, and still is, widely conside red UNIT VIII STUDY GUIDE Globalization and the New Millennium HY 1120, American History II 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title the single most powerful person on Earth. However, during the decades of change, even presidents would suffer from overexposure; the first real example of this would be Richard Milhous Nixon. Resuming our lesson where we ended the previous unit, the United States was dealing with a crisis the likes of which it had never seen before. This was not simply a failed attempt to secure victory on foreign shores (as was reminiscent of Teddy Roosevelt’s experience in the Philippines), but technology had evolved so quickly that footage of American embassy personnel fleeing Vietnam in helicopters would be broadcast to a worldwide audience. Eisenhower had been able to secure his military legacy, John F. Ken nedy (JFK) was noted for his charisma, and Lyndon B. Johnson was popular for his confidence and success despite adversity. Nixon, despite his own victories, such as opening communications with China and conquering the resolute Democratic opposition in the Southeast, would be doomed by the new age of technology, most notably for his role in the first great presidential scandal of the modern age: Watergate. There are many excellent in -depth resources about the W atergate scandal available to you, both in and outside of the course readings, but an important point to clarify here deals with the recent trend of dubbing modern corruption scandals with “gate” as a suffix. As effective as this type of catchy term can be for headlines, it has potential for misunders tanding. Watergate is not a reference to any body of water, as modern use may lead you to believe. Instead, it refers to an office and hotel complex in Washington , D.C. , where the notorious break -in by Nixon campaign assistants took place in June of 1972. It also refers to the arrests not long after the break -in. For the purpose of this lesson, the Watergate scandal would lead to the eventual resignation of Nixon and the promotion of his Vice President, Gerald Ford, to the Executive Office of President. Fo rd would finish Nixon’s second term, which was beset by economic problems. He is best remembered for publicly pardoning Nixon in 1974 for his role in the scandal, thus ensuring that the former president could retire in peace and not stand trial or serve ja il time. This was not a popular move by Ford and would end up hurting the Republican Party. In 1976, in the wake of the scandal and with the ongoing civil rights and tax battles, Jimmy Carter, a Georgia Democrat who was known for his southern charm and Chr istian morals, would win the office. Nixon’s political legacy is significant, however. The conversion of the Southeast into former “Dixiecrat” states meant that the Republican morals, which were generally pro -states’ rights and conservative, would also ga in a new audience and foundation of support. This would lead to some immediate challenges to their predecessor’s liberal programs, including some of the programs and issues that had lost Johnson his southern support base and swung the vote to elect Nixon i n 1968. These changes were not restricted to the executive branch, either. At the same time as Nixon’s election, the Republicans would gain stronger representation in Congress. Also, the vocal Chief Justice Earl W arren would be replaced by Warren E. Burger, who sought to limit federal intervention on issues at the local and state level s such as the ongoing abortion and equality debates. One such case that would be impacted would be Roe v. Wade (1973), making it legal for a woman to get an abortion fo r reasons other than to spare her life. Another was Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978), which forbade the requirement of quotas to ensure diversity, as had been outlined earlier by affirmative action laws. These programs and changes wo uld make Nixon into a hero of sorts for Conservative America , and Nixon became public enemy number one for reform – and counterculture -minded individuals, especially in traditionally liberal regions such as the West Coast. The Saigon evacuation (U.S. Marine Corps, 1975) HY 1120, American History II 3 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title As a statesman, President Carter lacked the necessary skill and charisma that had made his predecessors, excluding Ford, able to do so much during their administrations. He was not a sal esman; he was a farmer, a veteran, and a man devoted to conservative values.

His 4 years in office are generally remembered for their failures, which we will discuss shortly, but he also did a lot to renew confidence in the executive office in the wake of scandal. He took an eroding economy and in the spirit of Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR ) was able to implement work programs and lower taxes. However, this was only a temporary victory, as inflation and an oncoming energy crisis would quickly overshadow any ec onomic positives. In addition, some of his programs would actually start to secure working support for the Republican platform. Bailouts, deregulation of transportation, and great benefits to private entrepreneurs, coupled with an inability to make good on his campaign promises, caused many in his own party to long for the more controversial yet charismatic Senator Ted Kennedy, whom Carter had overtaken in the Democratic primaries. It was that magnetism that he lacked and would never find. On the world sta ge, Carter would take another series of blows because of a brewing energy crisis. Carter would focus on ecological programs, including building refuges and limiting strip mining, but his desire to promote alternate fuels would be the most calamitous. Thi s fuel fight would initially manifest in the National Energy Act of 1978, but that only fueled the fire of the American people as conflict grew in the already fractured Middle East. In the previous unit, we mentioned the Six -Year W ar; following that war, t ensions lessened between Israel and Egypt. However, farther east, f ighting in Afghanistan by the Soviet Union endangered the oil -rich Persian Gulf, which, if captured by the Communist bloc, would threaten the future of the energy market across the world. The introduction of the “Carter Doctrine” as well as the required draft registration of all male citizens 18 and older were cold reminder s of the harsh reality for many families who had lost fathers and older brothers less than a generation prior. Related issues that would test the resolve of the American people were Carter’s boycott of the 1980 Moscow Summer Olympic Games, and perhaps the most notable example of his limited statesmanship, and his last was a failed effort to end the Iran hostage crisis, in which 66 Americans were held as prisoners of war ( POWs ), which began i n 1979 because of U.S. support for the ousted Shah of Iran. Carter would not survive this crisis, and in 1980, the Republicans would once again retake the Oval Office.

The transition from Jimmy Carter to Ronald Reagan has been, from time to time, compared with that of Hoover to FDR during the Great Depression. W ith out fixating on the obvious differences in national vs. international cris es and economic vs. diplomatic issues, this is an illustrative comparison of just how quick American attitudes shifted. While serving as Governor of California, Reagan was a respecte d actor, charismatic with a strong stage presence. He was noted for his moral life and aptitude (capped by the support of the rising Christian Right) and his willingness to work with moderates. He was a fresh change from the string of reserved executives w ho had taken office following JFK’s assassination. With the change in the executive, the Senate also switched to a Republican majority. Economics would again be the measuring stick for the Reagan Administration, just as it had been for most Chief Executiv es since the Great Depression. Reagan was especially effective at addressing and fixing some of the issues that originated during the Nixon, Ford, and Carter Administrations by utilizing the more effective parts of their plans but molding them to better ad dress the nation’s needs. Perhaps the most famous example —using supply -side economics or Reaganomics —utilized his predecessors’ theories of cutting taxes and deregulation to free up capital, but he did not exclude as wide a base. Though the higher classes would still benefit the most, appealing to the middle class proved to incentivize more meticulous production, thus leading to higher pay, greater supply, and a more fluid economic system. This tax break would become official in 1981, known as the Economic Recovery Tax Act. As the process unfolded, it would directly counter older President Jimmy Carter signing documents in the Oval Office (White House Staff Photographers, 1977) HY 1120, American History II 4 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title policies to allow for greater entrepreneurial opportunity, including regulations related to monopolies, unions, and safety. In the same way he revisited business reform, Reagan wou ld also revise previous efforts with environmentalism, casting them as economic hindrances and acting with the resolve that the restoration of the U.S. economy was more important than traditional conservation standards. He also addressed other reforms in s imilar ways. The term reverse discrimination would become popular among Reagan’s support base. In essence, this was the feeling that reform laws for certain groups had gone too far and the nation was again out of balance, but now majority populations, name ly white males and females, were being given fewer opportunities due to the requirements put on businesses, schools, and government institutions. Groups such as homosexuals, who were successful in increasing public vocalization and representation in societ y during the previous decades, were even put under attack by the strong Christian Right support , which was given by the executive branch. On the home front in 1981, Reagan, along with the rest of the world , would begin to fight an unseen war against a dis ease that was hitting homosexual males the hardest. What became known as the AIDS virus would put fear in society as a whole, and that fear would often be aimed at homosexuals in violent ways.

Education and increased money for research have still not resul ted in a cure, but those with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV ) virus can now live long and productive lives without going into full -blown AIDS. Women were especially impacted by the Re agan Administration, as the Equal Rights Amendment would not gain the necessary support by the 1982 cut -off for ratification, thus limiting opportunities and providing smaller gains with the opportunities they won. The 1984 case Grove City v. Bell would be a testament to this and the growing Republican strength of the j udicial branch, as Title IX and women’s equality on the collegiate level were once again challenged and weakened. What the administration did for women was strengthen legislation surrounding the care and claims for women who were entitled to pensions, chi ld support, and alimony. Fearing Reagan was surpassing a line of fairness in favor of his constituents, Congress took up the fight against the other branches by passing the Civil Rights Restoration Act in 1988. The passing of this act determined any action that directly discriminated against participation by an eligible candidate, or any enrolled student in this case , as liable to the retraction of federal funding for the organization. Just as Reagan had been able to turn around Carter’s limited economic success, he also proved to be a much stronger international presence. Just hours into the Reagan Administration, the first crisis of office was dissolved with the freeing of the 66 hosta ges being held by the Ayatollah of Iran. As successful as his start was, Reagan’s time in office was not without its negatives as well. One of the more significant international blunders of the Reagan Administration would be the 1985 Iran – Contra Affair, which would directly lead into a scandal in 1986 and the public dismissal of National Security Official Oliver North , who claimed partial responsibility for profiting rebel groups in Nicaragua by selling weapons to Iran. Even though Reagan would escape rep ercussion, this was a major black mark against the otherwise prosperous administration. Other international reactions included interference (called peacekeeping ) in Lebanon in 1982, violent attacks in Beirut by the Muslim, having anti -Israel group Hezbolla h on the U.S. Embassy and Marine installations in 1983, and quelling a rising Marxist threat in Grenada. Reagan was not without his own flamboyant style, possibly aided by his movie star roots. He was successful in addressing some of the more aspiring and dubiously named projects in U.S. history during his administration. The last leg of the Cold War was also a golden age of cinema. One of the best would be the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) , which earned the name “Star Wars” by detractors for its futu ristic tenor, but its justification sounded almost worthy of a James Bond movie. It was a project intended to use lasers positioned in space that could aggressively stop a ballistic threat before endangering a target. As ambitious and costly as this was, i t ultimately proved a failure, as it violated cease -fire agreements around the globe, and the technology was not yet capable of achieving what was needed. HY 1120, American History II 5 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title What would be Reagan’s greatest legacy, though, would be his relationship with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, who , in 1985 , would open up the eroding iron curtain to allow for some Western influence and , in doing so, unhinge the door to progress for the entire Soviet bloc. This change in attitude was especially significant as Reagan had once used the term Evil Empire when referring to the U.S.S.R. In a public show of respect, the two met multiple times.

The most notable of these occurred in Geneva in 1985 at the Fireside Summit, where they met to discuss the continued tensions between the two Cold W ar superpowers. By the end of 1987, a ballistic disarmament pact, known as the Intermediate -Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty , effectively ended the nuclear threat that had long beleaguered the two countries. In 1988, the U.S.S.R. began to withdraw from the still hotly contested Afghanistan region. In November 1989, following Reagan’s public insistence, Gorbachev ordered the Berlin Wall, the physical symbol of the Cold War division, to be torn down. In addition to finally reuniting East and West Berlin, this also symbolically ended the Cold W ar and the communist threat in Eastern Europe. Soon after, several Soviet bloc nations officially separated from what had been the U.S.S.R. Today, there r emains a strong cultural link between these fracturing nations and Russia that has helped to fund issues that still dominate headlines. In 1991, in the wake of the separation of the former Soviet states, and with Russia under the leadership of President Bo ris Yeltsin, the controversial Gorbachev resigned. W ith the last leader of the Soviet experiment out of power, the Cold War feud faded with a world dependent on a new economic alliance system. In 1988, Reagan bid farewell to public service. Riding the wav e of the previous administration’s approval, Reagan’s Vice President, George H. W. Bush (the 41 st President of the United States ), began his term of office. Though also a conservative, Bush was much more moderate in his own platform. He would oversee the reinstitution of some of the reform initiatives from previous administrations, such as pro -conservation efforts , and programs , such as the Americans with Disabiliti es Act, which did not conflict with the ideals of the Republican base. Where he did meet opposition, though, was with an economic downturn that was the product of a busy Reagan Administration and a pledge to not extend the tax burden on Americans, no matt er what programs might suffer from the lack of funding. Both the groups who suffered and the voters who held him to his pledge rebelled, causing the Reagan momentum to finally stall. George H. W. Bush would also have the need to react to rising tensions in the Middle East, but his was a relatively easier draw than those of his predecessors. Gorbachev and Reagan signing the INF Treaty (White House Photographic Office, 1987) President George H. W. Bush with Soviet President Boris Yelts in (Biddle, 1993) HY 1120, American History II 6 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title War for Oil In 1990, Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein invaded neighboring Kuwait, which —though a significantly smaller nation — owned a much larger coastline for shipping. Further, its location was directly on top of one of the world’s most productive oil fields. If Hussein had succeeded in taking Kuwait, the Iraqi government could have controlled the market for oil, the richest economic resource, for the rest of the world. This threat, unlike any seen before it in recent times, brought the world (including other oil -producing nations) together for a common goal, and in 1991, Congress authorized the use of military force to liberate Kuwait. The Kuwait conflict was quickly resolved after intense bombing campaigns and a coordinated invasion strategy. Perhaps the greater significance, though, was what this conflict provided in its wake: proof that Cold War tensions among Western nations had come to an end after the collapse of the U.S.S.R. 2 years prior as well as a growing anti -American/anti -Western sentiment in the Middle East. The latter issue, largely building on previous anti -Western attitudes, grew with the United States’ continued support of Israel and the stationing of troops in what were considered holy lands. These actions were more than just politics and economics; they were direct challenges to the philosophy and daily life of a culture that few Americans truly understood. This became a convenient rallying cry for growing extremist movements. It was this negative cultural impact that was being propagated through the children. Privately run schools for youth in some Middle Eastern nations (madrassas) are , in theory , meant to be where t hey are taught the Qur’an, basic legibility and communication, and proper social habits. They were sometimes fed and clothed there as well, but all too often, they could be corruptive, depending on the leadership. It is through these lessons that anti -Amer icanism was often spread, and there was little W estern pressure to reform/provide alternate education for future generations. In 1992, an unexpected change would alter the political landscape. Despite the success of the Reagan and Bush years, the American people were embarking on a liberal swing once again , which meant a push against the heavy conservative values that had seen the nation grow in a post -Cold War world. Democratic Governor Bill Clinton emerged on the scene and was promising to keep the American values, which had been so successful in uniting the nation, but with a special focus on allowing the breaks to apply across all class structures while al so moving away from earlier liberal “big government” platforms. Clinton’s successful campaign would propel him and his running mate, Senator Al Gore, into a bright economic time for the nation. Despite the strong economy, there were still greater pressure s that limited the overall impact of Clinton’s time in office. There would be numerous small -scale threats both at home and abroad, including skirmishes in Bosnia and Israel ; civil wars in Rwanda, Kosovo, and Yugoslavia ; and early terror activity originati ng from the Middle East. Clinton also had to deal with homegrown terrorist Timothy McVeigh and his 1995 Oklahoma City bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah federal building. Politically, Clinton’s terms had drawbacks due to overly complicated and ill -fated plan s concerning Medicare, tax credits, homosexual rights, and insurance. Clinton would have some success overseas with the 1993 PLO Peace Accords held in Washington , D.C. These talks between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization were held with a go al of establishing a peace treaty between the two long -feuding factions. What would become the greater legacy of this otherwise successful presidency, though, would be a personal scandal that emerged from the testimony of White House intern Monica Lewinsky and led to charges of perjury and obstruction of justice, and for only the second time ever, a presidential impeachment. Clinton, Al Gore (left) and Bill Clinton (right) at the 1992 Presidential inauguration (Sema, 1997) HY 1120, American History II 7 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title though, was acquitted and would not be forced to resign. But the damage was done, and this brief Democratic surge in American policy would come to an end at the turn of the millennium. After a highly controversial 2000 presidential election, in which neither candidate clearly captured the majority vote, the Republicans reclaimed the Oval Office under the leadersh ip of George W . Bush (the 43rd P resident of the United States ), son of George H. W. Bush. Consequently, this would also be the closing of one era and the opening of a new era in American history. As noted in the introduction, globalization is a reference to the growing dependence on world markets over previous individual markets. What had really enabled this change was the way that citizens of the world were now able to communicate with one another. Technological advances in the previous 4 decades had made the computer small and inexpensive enough to become a staple in any home. During that progression, the combined efforts of scientists and engineers across the globe would ensure that the computer would change the way we live with the creation of a stable, instant, and comparatively cheap communication system: the Internet. Two other important changes dealt directly with trade and U.S. neighbors. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the W orld Trade Organization (WTO) were regional and worldwide agreement s, respectively, that encouraged stronger trade partnerships and benefits for buying and selling abroad. What they also did, however, was draw expected sales from American markets. Some companies even moved to these trading partners where their cost of pro duction would be lower due to less strict safety and wage laws. While jobs left, immigration continued to rise, leading to even fewer opportunities. Attitudes about language, housing, and cultural differences reflective of antebellum America began to emer ge once again. George W. Bush joined the Republican -controlled Congress in Washington , D.C. Several of the same issues that carried over from the Clinton Administration, such as schools, Medicare, and taxation, would immediately capture the attention of the American people. Early into this new administration, the first controversial act would pass a federal education initiative named No Child Left Behind. Like another controversial program, Medicare, the flaw of this system would end up being the reason for its expected success: standardization. These failures would quickly remind the U.S. population of concerns from the previous Republican administratio n and lead to concern over the gover nment’s ability to care for the “melting pot” of citizens, which now comprised the 50 states. 9/11 It remained politics as usual until an early Tuesday morning on September 11, 2001. The United States, who had not seen military action within its borders since Pearl Harbor, was suddenly attacked at one of one of its most significant landmarks in its largest city. After many previous attempts, the terror leaders who had spread anti -Americanism since the 1970s successfully struck at the hearts of American citizens. In all, f our planes were hijacked by members of the radical terrorist network known as Al Qaeda and flown directly into strategic targets in the United States. Two planes in New York City were intended to level the World Trade complex, while the other two were boun d for Washington , D.C. The first reached its target and destroyed a side of the Pentagon, but the second plane failed to reach its target after being retaken by passengers and crashing in rural Pennsylvania. President George W. Bush (Draper, 2003) HY 1120, American History II 8 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Thus, a decade after George H. W. Bush left Kuw ait, the harsh feelings were manifest against the United States on a worldwide scale. In the wake of this destruction, a second controversial act, the USA PATRIOT Act, would be passed. This act stripped U.S. citizens of certain civil liberties, including t he right to privacy and personal information. Troops were deployed against the Taliban in Afghanistan in 2001, and the United States invaded Iraq in 2003, following U nited Nations (U N) approval to neutralize Sad dam and his support for terrorist organizat ions. Support for the war quickly waned, causing increased pressures on Bush’s leadership. Reminiscent of the failed “standard” plans from early in George W. Bush’s terms, the next major issue would be the proper handling of natural disasters. In August 2 005, Category 5 Hurricane Katrina tore through the heart of the U.S. Gulf region, creating disaster and catastrophe in areas of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. There were delays in action, which made vocal local leaders quick to criticize th e federal efforts of dealing with this disaster, which, in all, claimed 1,500 casualties. Entire sections of major cities would remain destroyed for years to come. Perhaps even more significant was that the communities that were impacted the worst were tho se who had suffered for generations, including lower income populations , immigrants, African Americans, and Native Americans. This disparity raised serious questions about the federal government’s interest in and ability to protect the lower class in other parts of the country in future disasters. By the end of George W. Bush’s second term, it was clear that a new form of leadership would be sought. The Republicans nominated a war hero, Senator John McCain, and the Democrats would eventually decide to make history with the selection of Senator Barack Obama, the first presidential candidate who was half African American.

Obama would eventually win, bringing the Democrats back to Washington , D.C. , in both the e xecutive and legislative branches. With the war overseas winding down, the focus of the nation went directly to economy. Not unlike Hoover, Obama would immediately be faced with a crisis that was larger than could have been expected.

The year 2007 saw the economic bubble burst, and it became clear that the economic records of many large banks and businesses did not add up. Now, with those institutions floundering, many Americans were stuck with heavy debts and , all too often, lost jobs. Attempted tactics o f tax lowering and bailouts failed to bring back these businesses, and soon the government could do little but pass new programs and requirements meant to produce o pportunities. Most notable was the disputed medical insurance requiremen t—the Affordable Car e Act, nicknamed Obamacare —which ultimately required the American people to cover themselves in case the worst should happen medically. Fighting would continue in the Middle East until the first troops were pulled out in 2011. That same year, the home of Osama bin Laden, the mastermind of the 9/11 attacks, was raided, and he was killed in a covert Navy SEAL operation. In 2012, despite poor approval ratings, Barack Obama did successfully retain his position, but with strong opposition; the legislative branch was dominated by Republicans , which made the passage of any platform – related bill difficult. The American people were clearly divided and angered by the lack of success with recent acts, causing Obama to only receive 51% of the vote. Troop deployme nt questions, universal reform questions, massive debt, and out -of-control immigration all came with this second term. Also, a new threat in old locations started to emerge, as North Korea began aggressively showing off its new leader, Kim Jong -un, via mil itary demonstrations that angered and threatened their southern neighbors. The Gaza Strip, and general relations between Palestine and Israel, once again began to falter, and extremists from the Middle East began to organize after the death of the President Barack Obama (U.S. Senate, 2005) HY 1120, American History II 9 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title signific ant longtime leader, Osama bin Laden. Lastly, there were honest nuclear concerns for the first time since the Cold War as members of the former Soviet bloc were engaging in territory disputes again , and multiple nations now boasted technology that was capa ble of building and using nuclear weapons. As this course has highlighted, the eras of American history leading to the present day have an interesting way of mirroring each other and not always with the same outcome. It is important to see these connectio ns and work to understand the world around us. There is always going to be conflict and disputed beliefs, but can the world population now use its advanced communication tools to learn from failure and create better future outcomes? References Biddle, S . (1993). George H. W. Bush and Boris Yeltsin 1993 [Photograph]. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:George_H._W._Bush_and_Boris_Yeltsin_1993.jpg Draper, E. (2003). P43 George W. Bush [Photograph]. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:P43_George_W._Bush_3x4.jpg Serna, F. (1997 ). Bill Clinton & Al Gore sing national anthem at 1997 inauguration [Photograph]. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bill_C linton_%26_Al_Gore_sing_national_anthem_at_1997_i nauguration.JPG U.S. Marine Corps. (1975 ). CH -53s evacuate people from LZ 39 in Saigon 1975 [Photograph]. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:CH – 53s_evacuate_people_from_LZ_39_in_Saigon_1 975.JPG U.S. Senate. (2005). BarackObama2005portrait [Photograph ]. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BarackObama2005portrait.jpg White House Photographic Office. (1987). Reagan and Gorbachev signing [Photograph]. Retrieved from https ://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Reagan_and_Gorbachev_signing.jpg White House Staff Photographer s. (1997 ). President Jimmy Carter – NARA [Photograph]. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:President_Jimmy_Carter_ -_NARA_ -_173490.tif

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