*Under the Class Resources tab, students will find the MSN Essentials which help to guide and shape graduate nursing education. Select 1 of these essentials that most closely reflect the concepts of this theory.**
Please make sure that your submission adheres to the following:
3. All discussion posts must be minimum 250 words, references must be cited in APA format, and must include minimum of 2 scholarly resources published within the past 5-7 years. Please be sure to cite your reference(s) in APA format, at the end of your posting. Students must respond at least to 2 classmates and response posts must be minimum 100 words.
The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice
October 20, 2008
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Executive Summary 3
Background 5 Nursing Education 6 The Discipline of Nursing 7 Assumptions 8 Roles for the Baccalaureate Generalist Nurse 8 Preparation for the Baccalaureate Generalist Nurse: Components of the Essentials 10
The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice I. Liberal Education for Baccalaureate Generalist Nursing Practice 10
II. Basic Organizational and Systems Leadership for Quality Care and Patient Safety 13
III. Scholarship for EvidenceBased Practice 15
IV. Information Management and Application of Patient Care Technology 17
V. Healthcare Policy, Finance, and Regulatory Environments 20
VI. Interprofessional Communication and Collaboration for Improving Patient Health Outcomes 22
VII. Clinical Prevention and Population Health 23
VIII. Professionalism and Professional Values 26
IX. Baccalaureate Generalist Nursing Practice 29
Expectations for Clinical Experiences within the Baccalaureate Program 33
Appendix A: Task Force on the Revision of the Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice 45
Appendix B: Consensus Process to Revise the Essentials of Baccalaureate 46 Education for Professional Nursing Practice
Appendix C: Participants who Attended Stakeholder Meetings 47
Appendix D: Schools of Nursing that Participated in the Regional Meetings 49
Appendix E: Professional Organizations that Participated in the Regional Meetings 60
Appendix F: Healthcare Systems that Participated in the Regional Meetings 61
Executive Summary The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice (2008)
This Essentials document serves to transform baccalaureate nursing education by providing the curricular elements and framework for building the baccalaureate nursing curriculum for the 21 st century. These Essentials address the key stakeholders’ recommendations and landmark documents such as the IOM’s recommendations for the core knowledge required of all healthcare professionals. This document emphasizes such concepts as patientcentered care, interprofessional teams, evidencebased practice, quality improvement, patient safety, informatics, clinical reasoning/critical thinking, genetics and genomics, cultural sensitivity, professionalism, and practice across the lifespan in an everchanging and complex healthcare environment
Essentials IIX delineate the outcomes expected of graduates of baccalaureate nursing programs. Achievement of these outcomes will enable graduates to practice within complex healthcare systems and assume the roles: provider of care; designer/manager/coordinator of care; and member of a profession. Essential IX describes generalist nursing practice at the completion of baccalaureate nursing education. This Essential includes practicefocused outcomes that integrate the knowledge, skills, and attitudes delineated in Essentials I – VIII. The time needed to accomplish each Essential will vary, and each Essential does not require a separate course for achievement of the outcomes.
The nine Essentials are: • Essential I: Liberal Education for Baccalaureate Generalist Nursing Practice
o A solid base in liberal education provides the cornerstone for the practice and education of nurses.
• Essential II: Basic Organizational and Systems Leadership for Quality Care and Patient Safety
o Knowledge and skills in leadership, quality improvement, and patient safety are necessary to provide high quality health care.
• Essential III: Scholarship for Evidence Based Practice o Professional nursing practice is grounded in the translation of current evidence
into one’s practice. • Essential IV: Information Management and Application of Patient Care Technology
o Knowledge and skills in information management and patient care technology are critical in the delivery of quality patient care.
• Essential V: Health Care Policy, Finance, and Regulatory Environments o Healthcare policies, including financial and regulatory, directly and indirectly
influence the nature and functioning of the healthcare system and thereby are important considerations in professional nursing practice.
• Essential VI: Interprofessional Communication and Collaboration for Improving Patient Health Outcomes
o Communication and collaboration among healthcare professionals are critical to delivering high quality and safe patient care.
• Essential VII: Clinical Prevention and Population Health o Health promotion and disease prevention at the individual and population level
are necessary to improve population health and are important components of baccalaureate generalist nursing practice.
• Essential VIII: Professionalism and Professional Values o Professionalism and the inherent values of altruism, autonomy, human dignity,
integrity, and social justice are fundamental to the discipline of nursing. • Essential IX: Baccalaureate Generalist Nursing Practice
o The baccalaureategraduate nurse is prepared to practice with patients, including individuals, families, groups, communities, and populations across the lifespan and across the continuum of healthcare environments.
o The baccalaureate graduate understands and respects the variations of care, the increased complexity, and the increased use of healthcare resources inherent in caring for patients.
Learning opportunities, including direct clinical experiences, must be sufficient in breadth and depth to ensure the baccalaureate graduate attains these practicefocused outcomes and integrates the delineated knowledge and skills into the graduate’s professional nursing practice. Clinical learning is focused on developing and refining the knowledge and skills necessary to manage care as part of an interprofessional team. Simulation experiences augment clinical learning and are complementary to direct care opportunities essential to assuming the role of the professional nurse. A clinical immersion experience provides opportunities for building clinical reasoning, management, and evaluation skills.
The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice provides the educational framework for the preparation of professional nurses. This document describes the outcomes expected of graduates of baccalaureate nursing programs.
The Essentials apply to all prelicensure and RN completion programs, whether the degree is baccalaureate or graduate entry. Program curricula are designed to prepare students to meet the endofprogram outcomes delineated under each Essential.
The healthcare delivery system has changed dramatically since The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice was endorsed by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN, 1998). Building a safer healthcare system has become the focus of all health professions following numerous reports from the Institute of Medicine (IOM, 2000, 2001, 2004), American Hospital Association (2002), Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (Kimball & O’Neill, 2002), the Joint Commission (2002) and other authorities. Nursing has been identified as having the potential for making the biggest impact on a transformation of healthcare delivery to a safer, higher quality, and more costeffective system. With the increasing awareness of the need for change in the healthcare system, the clinical microsystems (small, functional units where care is provided within the larger system) have become an important focus for improving healthcare outcomes (Nelson, Batalden, & Godfrey, 2007).
In addition to the concern over healthcare outcomes, the United States and the global market are experiencing a nursing shortage that is expected to intensify as the demand for more and different nursing services grows. Buerhaus, Staiger, and Auerbach (2008) reported that the U.S. may experience a shortage of more than 500,000 registered nurses by the year 2025. Despite annual increases in enrollments in entrylevel baccalaureate nursing programs since 2001 (Fang, Htut, & Bednash, 2008), these increases are not sufficient to meet the projected demand for nurses. According to Buerhaus et al. (2008), enrollment in nursing programs would have to increase at least 40% annually to replace the nurses expected to leave the workforce through retirement alone. Addressing the need for an increased number of baccalaureateprepared nurses is critical but not sufficient. Nursing must educate future professionals to deliver patientcentered care as members of an interprofessional team, emphasizing evidencebased practice, quality improvement approaches, and informatics (IOM, 2003b). Nursing education and practice must work together to better align education with practice environments (Joint Commission, 2002, Kimball & O’Neill, 2002;).
The environments in which professional nurses practice have become more diverse and more global in nature. Scientific advances, particularly in the areas of genetics and
genomics, have had and will continue to have a growing and significant impact on prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases, illnesses, and conditions. The increased prevalence of chronic illness is a result of an increasingly older adult population, environmental threats, lifestyles that increase risk of disease, and enhanced technological and therapeutic interventions that prolong life. Increases in longevity of life have made the older adult the fastest growing segment of the population. In 2003, 12 % of the population was older than 65 years of age. By 2030, this population will increase to 20%, with a large majority older than 80 years of age (He, Sengupta, Velkoff, & DeBarros, 2005). Those older than 65 years of age had almost four times the number of hospitalization days than those younger than 65 years of age (Centers for Disease Control, 2007)
Education for the baccalaureate generalist must include content and experiences across the lifespan, including the very young who are especially vulnerable. The percentage of the population under 18 years of age is 24.6% (U.S. Census Bureau, 2008). U.S. infant mortality in 2006 ranked 38 th in the world (World Health Organization, 2008). Prevention is critical in addressing both acute and chronic conditions across the lifespan. The role of the nurse in prevention continues to be of utmost importance.
Increasing globalization of healthcare and the diversity of this nation’s population mandates an attention to diversity in order to provide safe, high quality care. The professional nurse practices in a multicultural environment and must possess the skills to provide culturally appropriate care. According to the U.S. Census Bureau (2008), the nation’s minority population totaled 102 million or 34% of the U.S. population in 2006. With projections pointing to even greater levels of diversity in the coming years, professional nurses need to demonstrate a sensitivity to and understanding of a variety of cultures to provide high quality care across settings. Liberal education, including the study of a second language, facilitates the development of an appreciation for diversity.
Strong forces influencing the role of nurses include: • scientific advances, particularly in the area of genetics and genomics, • changing demographics of patient populations, • new care technologies, and • patient access to healthcare information.
These forces call for new ways of thinking and providing health care. Nursing is uniquely positioned to respond to these major forces, requiring an increased emphasis on designing and implementing patientcentered care, developing partnerships with the patient, and a focus on customer service.
In response to calls for transforming the healthcare system and how healthcare professionals are educated, AACN has maintained an ongoing dialogue with a broad representation of stakeholders internal and external to nursing. The dialogue has focused on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed by nurses to practice effectively within this
complex and changing environment. New innovative models of nursing education have emerged, and AACN has taken a leadership role in crafting a preferred vision for nursing education.
In 2004, the AACN Board of Directors reaffirmed its position that baccalaureate education is the minimum level required for entry into professional nursing practice in today’s complex healthcare environment. Baccalaureate generalist education, as defined in this document, is the foundation upon which all graduate nursing education builds.
The preferred vision for nursing education includes generalist, advanced generalist, and advanced specialty nursing education. Generalist nurse education occurs at a minimum in baccalaureatedegree nursing programs. Advanced generalist education occurs in master’s degree nursing programs, including the Clinical Nurse Leader (CNL®), which is an advanced generalist nursing role. Advanced specialty education occurs at the doctoral level in Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) or researchfocused degree programs (PhD, DNS, or DNSc). Endofprogram outcomes for the baccalaureate, master’s, and doctoral nursing programs build on each other.
The Discipline of Nursing
Roles for the baccalaureate generalist nurse are derived from the discipline of nursing. The roles of the baccalaureate generalist include:
• provider of care, • designer/manager/coordinator of care, and • member of a profession.
Nursing generalist practice includes both direct and indirect care for patients, which includes individuals, families, groups, communities, and populations. Nursing practice is built on nursing knowledge, theory, and research. In addition, nursing practice derives knowledge from a wide array of other fields and professions, adapting and applying this knowledge as appropriate to professional practice.
In the senior college and university setting, every academic discipline is grounded in discrete inquirybased applications that are distinctive to that discipline. Scientific advances, (particularly in the area of genetics and genomics), changing demographics of patient populations, new care technologies, and patient access to health care information call for new ways of thinking and doing in the provision of health care. The academic setting provides a forum for contemplating physical, psychological, social, cultural, behavioral, ethical, and spiritual problems within and across disciplines. Faculty have a responsibility to facilitate the translation of knowledge from a liberal education base into the practice of nursing. Nursing faculty introduce nursing science and theories, and guide the student in developing an understanding of the discipline of nursing’s distinctive perspective.
Baccalaureateprepared nurses provide patientcentered care that identifies, respects, and addresses patients’ differences, values, preferences, and expressed needs (IOM, 2003a). Patientcentered care also involves the coordination of continuous care, listening to,
communicating with, and educating patients and caregivers regarding health, wellness, and disease management and prevention. The generalist nurse provides the human link between the healthcare system and the patient by translating the plan of care to the patient. A broadbased skill set is required to fill this human interface role. Patient centered care also requires the development of a nursepatient partnership. Patients, as consumers of healthcare services, and as integral members of the healthcare team, have an increasing role and responsibility for the mutual planning of care and healthcare decision making.
The fundamental aspects of generalist nursing practice are: direct care of the sick in and across all environments, health promotion and clinical prevention, and populationbased health care. A defining feature of professional nursing practice is the focus on health promotion and risk reduction. Advances in science and technology will continue to emerge, which will help to predict future health problems. Nurses will design and implement measures to modify risk factors and promote healthy lifestyles. These same advances in science and technology also have allowed individuals to live longer and often with increasing numbers of chronic illnesses and conditions. With an increasing emphasis on costsavings and costbenefits, nurses will play a leading role in the provision of care.
The baccalaureate generalist graduate is prepared to: • practice from a holistic, caring framework; • practice from an evidence base; • promote safe, quality patient care; • use clinical/critical reasoning to address simple to complex situations; • assume accountability for one’s own and delegated nursing care; • practice in a variety of healthcare settings; • care for patients across the healthillness continuum; • care for patients across the lifespan; • care for diverse populations; • engage in care of self in order to care for others; and • engage in continuous professional development.
Roles for the Baccalaureate Generalist Nurse
Baccalaureate Generalist nurses are providers of direct and indirect care. In this role, nurses are patient advocates and educators. Historically, the nursing role has emphasized partnerships with patients – whether individuals, families, groups, communities, or populations – in order to foster and support the patient’s active participation in determining healthcare decisions. Patient advocacy is a hallmark of the professional nursing role and requires that nurses deliver high quality care, evaluate care outcomes, and provide leadership in improving care.
Changing demographics and ongoing advances in science and technology are a reality of healthcare practice. The generalist nurse provides evidencebased care to patients within this changing environment. This clinician uses research findings and other evidence in designing and implementing care that is multidimensional, high quality, and cost effective. The generalist nurse also is prepared for the ethical dilemmas that arise in practice and will be able to make and assist others in making decisions within a professional ethical framework. Understanding advances in science and technology and the influence these advances have on health care and individual wellbeing is essential. Understanding patients and the values they bring to the healthcare relationship is equally important.
The generalist nurse practices from a holistic, caring framework. Holistic nursing care is comprehensive and focuses on the mind, body, and spirit, as well as emotions. The generalist nurse recognizes the important distinction between disease and the individual’s illness experience. Assisting patients to understand this distinction is an important aspect of nursing. In addition, nurses recognize that determining the health status of the patient within the context of the patient’s values is essential in providing a framework for planning, implementing, and evaluating outcomes of care.
The generalist nurse provides care in and across all environments. Nurses focus on individual, family, community, and population health care, as they monitor and manage aspects of the environment to foster health.
Baccalaureate generalist nurses are designers, coordinators, and managers of care. The generalist nurse, prepared at the baccalaureatedegree level, will have the knowledge and authority to delegate tasks to other healthcare personnel, as well as to supervise and evaluate these personnel. As healthcare providers who function autonomously and interdependently within the healthcare team, nurses are accountable for their professional practice and image, as well as for outcomes of their own and delegated nursing care. Nurses are members of healthcare teams, composed of professionals and other personnel that deliver treatment and services in complex, evolving healthcare systems. Nurses bring a unique blend of knowledge, judgment, skills, and caring to the healthcare team.
Baccalaureate generalist nurses are members of the profession and in this role are advocates for the patient and the profession. The use of the term “professional” implies the formation of a professional identity and accountability for one’s professional image. As professionals, nurses are knowledge workers who use a welldelineated and broad knowledge base for practice. Professional nursing requires strong critical reasoning, clinical judgment, communication, and assessment skills. The professional nurse also requires the development and demonstration of an appropriate set of values and ethical framework for practice. As advocates for high quality care for all patients, nurses are knowledgeable and active in the policy processes defining healthcare delivery and systems of care. The generalist nurse also is committed to lifelong learning, including career planning, which increasingly will include graduate level study.
Preparation for the Baccalaureate Generalist Nurse Roles: Components of The Essentials
This section outlines the nine Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice. These Essentials are the curricular elements that provide the framework for baccalaureate nursing education. Each Essential is operationalized through the program’s curriculum and is not intended to represent a course. Essential IX describes baccalaureate nursing practice and integrates the knowledge, skills, and attitudes from Essentials IVIII. Each Essential includes a rationale explaining its relevance for the education of the professional nurse today and in the future. The rationale for each Essential is followed by outcomes that delineate the knowledge, skills, and attitudes expected of new baccalaureate generalist graduates. These outcomes serve as a guide to help faculty identify program and course objectives that are specific and measurable. Next, sample content is listed to aid faculty in selecting material suited to achieving the specific Essential. The list of content is not inclusive, nor is it intended as required. A vast selection of content is available for each Essential, and the specific baccalaureate program’s curriculum will specify the content as appropriate to their mission, community served, and student population. The Essential outcomes can be obtained through a variety of content approaches, and potential content can and will evolve over time as new knowledge develops. The sample content is offered as a guide to programs or to further elucidate the nature of the Essential with which the content is listed.
The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice
Essential I: Liberal Education for Baccalaureate Generalist Nursing Practice
As defined by the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U), a liberal education is one that intentionally fosters, across multiple fields of study, wide ranging knowledge of science, cultures, and society; highlevel intellectual and practical skills; an active commitment to personal and social responsibility; and the demonstrated ability to apply learning to complex problems and challenges (AAC&U, 2007, p. 4). For the purposes of this document, a liberal education includes both the sciences and the arts. The sciences include:
• physical sciences (e.g., physics and chemistry), • life sciences (e.g., biology and genetics), • mathematical sciences, and • social sciences (e.g., psychology and sociology).
The arts include: • fine arts (e.g., painting and sculpture), • performing arts (e.g., dance and music), and • humanities (e.g., literature and theology).
Liberal education is critical to the generation of responsible citizens in a global society. In addition, liberal education is needed for the development of intellectual and innovative capacities for current and emergent generalist nursing practice. Liberally educated nurses work within a healthcare team to address issues important to the profession of nursing, question dominant assumptions, and solve complex problems related to individuals and populationbased health care. Nursing graduates with a liberal education exercise appropriate clinical judgment, understand the reasoning behind policies and standards, and accept responsibility for continued development of self and the discipline of nursing.
A solid base in liberal education provides the distinguishing cornerstone for the study and practice of professional nursing. Studying the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences expands the learner’s capacity to engage in socially valued work and civic leadership in society. A strong foundation in liberal arts includes a general education curriculum that provides broad exposure to multiple disciplines and ways of knowing. Other than the nursing major, some aspects of liberal arts study will be provided as discrete parts of the full educational curriculum; however the rich and diverse perspectives and knowledge embedded in the liberal arts and sciences will be integrated throughout the nursing curriculum, as these perspectives are integral to the full spectrum of professional nursing practice (Hermann, 2004).
Successful integration of liberal education and nursing education provides graduates with knowledge of human cultures, including spiritual beliefs, and the physical and natural worlds supporting an inclusive approach to practice. The study of history, fine arts, literature, and languages are important building blocks for developing cultural competence and clinical reasoning. Furthermore, the integration of concepts from behavioral, biological, and natural sciences throughout the nursing curriculum promotes the understanding of self and others and contributes to safe, quality care. The integration of concepts from the arts and sciences provides the foundation for understanding health as well as disease processes, and forms the basis for clinical reasoning. As noted by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, the sciences are a critical aspect of liberal education for nurses. Sciences that have clinical relevance are especially important to the profession of nursing to ensure that graduates have the ability to keep pace with changes driven by research and new technologies (Carnegie Foundation, in press).
A liberal education for nurses forms the basis for intellectual and practical abilities for nursing practice as well as for engagement with the larger community, both locally and globally. Skills of inquiry, analysis, critical thinking, and communication in a variety of modes, including the written and spoken word, prepare baccalaureate graduates to involve others in the common good through use of information technologies, team work, and interprofessional problem solving. Liberal education, including the study of a second language, facilitates the development of an appreciation for cultural and ethnic diversity.
Strong emphasis on the development of a personal values system that includes the capacity to make and act upon ethical judgments is a hallmark of liberal education. Students educated in a liberal education environment are encouraged to pursue
meaningful personal and professional goals as well as to commit to honesty in relationships and the search for truth. The development of leadership skills and acceptance of responsibility to promote social justice are expected outcomes of a liberal education.
Liberal education allows the graduate to form the values and standards needed to address twentyfirst century changes in technology, demographics, and economics. These trends include an aging population, diverse family and community structures, and increasing global interdependence, as well as economic and political changes in the United States healthcare system. Liberal education provides the baccalaureate graduate with the ability to integrate knowledge, skills, and values from the arts and sciences to provide humanistic, safe quality care; to act as advocates for individuals, families, groups, communities, and/or populations; and to promote social justice. Liberally educated graduates practice from a foundation of professional values and standards.
The baccalaureate program prepares the graduate to:
1. Integrate theories and concepts from liberal education into nursing practice.
2. Synthesize theories and concepts from liberal education to build an understanding of the human experience.
3. Use skills of inquiry, analysis, and information literacy to address practice issues.
4. Use written, verbal, nonverbal, and emerging technology methods to communicate effectively.
5. Apply knowledge of social and cultural factors to the care of diverse populations.
6. Engage in ethical reasoning and actions to provide leadership in promoting advocacy, collaboration, and social justice as a socially responsible citizen.
7. Integrate the knowledge and methods of a variety of disciplines to inform decision making.
8. Demonstrate tolerance for the ambiguity and unpredictability of the world and its effect on the healthcare system.
9. Value the ideal of lifelong learning to support excellence in nursing practice.
• selected concepts and ways of knowing from the sciences • selected concepts and ways of knowing from the arts • principles related to working with peoples from diverse cultures
• concepts related to intellectual diversity, tolerance, and social justice • concepts related to globalization and migration of populations
Essential II: Basic Organizational and Systems Leadership for Quality Care and Patient Safety
Organizational and systems leadership, quality improvement, and safety are critical to promoting high quality patient care. Leadership skills are needed that emphasize ethical and critical decisionmaking, initiating and maintaining effective working relationships, using mutually respectful communication and collaboration within interprofessional teams, care coordination, delegation, and developing conflict resolution strategies. Basic nursing leadership includes an awareness of complex systems, and the impact of power, politics, policy, and regulatory guidelines on these systems. To be effective, baccalaureate graduates must be able to practice at the microsystem level within an ever changing healthcare system. This practice requires creativity and effective leadership and communication skills to work productively within interprofessional teams in various healthcare settings.
As a member of a healthcare team, baccalaureate graduates will understand and use quality improvement concepts, processes, and outcome measures. In addition, graduates will be able to assist or initiate basic quality and safety investigations; assist in the development of quality improvement action plans; and assist in monitoring the results of these action plans within the clinical microsystem, which is embedded within a larger system of care.
An important component of quality is safety. Safety in health care is defined as the minimization of “risk of harm to patients and providers through both system effectiveness and individual performance” (Cronenwett et al., 2007). Research has demonstrated that nurses more than any other healthcare professional are able to recognize, interrupt, evaluate, and correct healthcare errors (Rothschild et al., 2006) The baccalaureate graduate implements safety principles and works with others on the interprofessional healthcare team to create a safe, caring environment for care delivery.
Baccalaureate graduates will be skilled in working within organizational and community arenas and in the actual provision of care by themselves and/or supervising care provided by other licensed and nonlicensed assistive personnel. They will be able to recognize safety and quality concerns and apply evidencebased knowledge from the nursing profession and other clinical sciences to their practice. Baccalaureate nursing graduates are distinguished by their abilities to identify, assess, and evaluate practice in care delivery models that are based in contemporary nursing science and are feasible within current cultural, economic, organizational, and political perspectives.
The baccalaureate program prepares the graduate to:
1. Apply leadership concepts, skills, and decision making in the provision of high quality nursing care, healthcare team coordination, and the oversight and accountability for care delivery in a variety of settings.
2. Demonstrate leadership and communication skills to effectively implement patient safety and quality improvement initiatives within the context of the interprofessional team.
3. Demonstrate an awareness of complex organizational systems.
4. Demonstrate a basic understanding of organizational structure, mission, vision, philosophy, and values.
5. Participate in quality and patient safety initiatives, recognizing that these are complex system issues, which involve individuals, families, groups, communities, populations, and other members of the healthcare team.
6. Apply concepts of quality and safety using structure, process, and outcome measures to identify clinical questions and describe the process of changing current practice.
7. Promote factors that create a culture of safety and caring.
8. Promote achievement of safe and quality outcomes of care for diverse populations.
9. Apply quality improvement processes to effectively implement patient safety initiatives and monitor performance measures, including nursesensitive indicators in the microsystem of care.
10. Use improvement methods, based on data from the outcomes of care processes, to design and test changes to continuously improve the quality and safety of health care.
11. Employ principles of quality improvement, healthcare policy, and costeffectiveness to assist in the development and initiation of effective plans for the microsystem and/or systemwide practice improvements that will improve the quality of healthcare delivery.
12. Participate in the development and implementation of imaginative and creative strategies to enable systems to change.
• leadership, including theory, behaviors, characteristics, contemporary approaches, leadership development, and styles of leadership
• leadership skills and strategies (negotiating, collaborating, coordinating); decision making to promote quality patient care in a variety of healthcare settings
• change theory and complexity science • community organizing models • social change theories • creative and imaginative strategies in problem solving • communication, including elements, channels, levels, barriers, models,
organizational communication, skill development, workplace communication, conflict resolution, optimizing patient care outcomes, and chainofcommand
• principles of interpersonal interactions/communication • healthcare systems (structure and finance) and organizational structures and
relationships (e.g., between finance, organizational structure, and delivery of care, particularly at the microsystem level, including mission/vision/philosophy and values)
• reliability and reliability sciences in health care • operations research, queuing theory, and systems designs in health care • teamwork skills, including effective teams/characteristics, application to patient
care teams, team process, conflict resolution, delegation, supervision, and collaboration
• microsystems and their relationship to complex systems, quality care, and patient safety
• patient safety principles, including safety standards, organizational safety processes, reporting processes, departmental responsibilities, ownership, national initiatives, and financial implications
• quality improvement (QI), including history, elements, Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) models, concepts, principles, benchmarking, processes, tools, departmental ownership, roles/responsibility, methodologies, regulatory requirements, organizational structures for QI, outcomes, monitoring, Quality Assurance (QA) vs. QI, beginning resource need assessment, and resource identification, acquisition, and evaluation
• overview of QI process techniques, including benchmarks, basic statistics, root cause analyses, and Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA) in the quality improvement process
• principles of nursing care delivery management and evaluation
Essential III: Scholarship for EvidenceBased Practice
Professional nursing practice is grounded in the translation of current evidence into practice. Scholarship for the baccalaureate graduate involves identification of practice issues; appraisal and integration of evidence; and evaluation of outcomes. As practitioners at the point of care, baccalaureate nurses are uniquely positioned to monitor patient outcomes and identify practice issues. Evidencebased practice models provide a
systematic process for the evaluation and application of scientific evidence surrounding practice issues (IOM, 2003b). Dissemination is a critical element of scholarly practice; baccalaureate graduates are prepared to share evidence of best practices with the interprofessional team.
Baccalaureate education provides a basic understanding of how evidence is developed, including the research process, clinical judgment, interprofessional perspectives, and patient preference as applied to practice. This basic understanding serves as a foundation for more complex applications at the graduate level (AACN, 2006a). Baccalaureate nurses integrate reliable evidence from multiple ways of knowing to inform practice and make clinical judgments. In collaboration with other healthcare team members, graduates participate in documenting and interpreting evidence for improving patient outcomes (AACN, 2006b).
In all healthcare settings, ethical and legal precepts guide research conduct to protect the rights of patients eligible for, or participating in, investigations. Professional nurses safeguard patient rights, including those of the most vulnerable patients, in situations where an actual or potential conflict of interest, misconduct, or the potential for harm are identified.
The baccalaureate program prepares the graduate to:
1. Explain the interrelationships among theory, practice, and research.
2. Demonstrate an understanding of the basic elements of the research process and models for applying evidence to clinical practice.
3. Advocate for the protection of human subjects in the conduct of research.
4. Evaluate the credibility of sources of information, including but not limited to databases and Internet resources.
5. Participate in the process of retrieval, appraisal, and synthesis of evidence in collaboration with other members of the healthcare team to improve patient outcomes.
6. Integrate evidence, clinical judgment, interprofessional perspectives, and patient preferences in planning, implementing, and evaluating outcomes of care.
7. Collaborate in the collection, documentation, and dissemination of evidence.
8. Acquire an understanding of the process for how nursing and related healthcare quality and safety measures are developed, validated, and endorsed.
9. Describe mechanisms to resolve identified practice discrepancies between identified standards and practice that may adversely impact patient outcomes.
• principles and models of evidencebased practice • nursesensitive quality indicators (National Quality Forum, 2004), performance
measures • overview of qualitative and quantitative research processes • methods for locating and appraising health and other relevant research literature
and other sources of evidence • basic applied statistics • basic designs, corresponding questions, analytical methods related to research
questions, and limits on implications of findings (e.g., causal vs. relational) • ethical conduct of research and scholarly work • linkages among practice, research evidence, patient outcomes, and cost
containment • forces driving research agendas • locating and evaluating sources of evidence • electronic database search strategies (e.g., CINAHL, PubMed) • systematic application of information • levels of evidence: textbooks, case studies, reviews of literature, research
critiques, controlled trials, evidencebased clinical practice guidelines ( www.guideline.gov), metaanalyses, and systematic reviews (e.g., the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
• differentiation of clinical opinion from research and evidence summaries • scholarship dissemination methods: oral/visual presentations, publications,
Essential IV: Information Management and Application of Patient Care Technology
Knowledge and skills in information and patient care technology are critical in preparing baccalaureate nursing graduates to deliver quality patient care in a variety of healthcare settings (IOM, 2003a). Graduates must have basic competence in technical skills, which includes the use of computers, as well as the application of patient care technologies such as monitors, data gathering devices, and other technological supports for patient care interventions. In addition, baccalaureate graduates must have competence in the use of information technology systems, including decisionsupport systems, to gather evidence to guide practice. Specific introductory level nursing informatics competencies include the ability to use selected applications in a comfortable and knowledgeable way.
Computer and information literacy are crucial to the future of nursing. Improvement of cost effectiveness and safety depend on evidencebased practice, outcomes research, interprofessional care coordination, and electronic health records, all of which involve information management and technology (McNeil et al., 2006). Therefore, graduates of
baccalaureate programs must have competence in using both patient care technologies and information management systems.
In addition, baccalaureate graduates ethically manage data, information, knowledge, and technology to communicate effectively; provide safe and effective patient care; and use research and clinical evidence to inform practice decisions. Graduates will be aware that new technology often requires new workflow patterns and changes in practice approaches to patient care prior to implementation.
The use and understanding of standardized terminologies are foundational to the development of effective clinical information systems (CIS). Integration of standardized terminologies into the CIS not only supports daytoday nursing practice but also the capacity to enhance interprofessional communication and automatically generate standardized data to continuously evaluate and improve practice (American Nurses Association, 2008). Baccalaureate graduates are prepared to gather and document care data that serve as a foundation for decision making for the healthcare team.
Course work and clinical experiences will provide the baccalaureate graduate with knowledge and skills to use information management and patient care technologies to deliver safe and effective care. Graduates will have exposure to information systems that provide data about quality improvement and required regulatory reporting through information systems. Course work and clinical experiences will expose graduates to a range of technologies that facilitate clinical care, including patient monitoring systems, medication administration systems, and other technologies to support patient care.
Integral to these basic skills is an attitude of openness to innovation and continual learning, as information systems and patient care technologies are constantly changing.
The baccalaureate program prepares the graduate to:
1. Demonstrate skills in using patient care technologies, information systems, and communication devices that support safe nursing practice.
2. Use telecommunication technologies to assist in effective communication in a variety of healthcare settings.
3. Apply safeguards and decision making support tools embedded in patient care technologies and information systems to support a safe practice environment for both patients and healthcare workers.
4. Understand the use of CIS systems to document interventions related to achieving nurse sensitive outcomes.
5. Use standardized terminology in a care environment that reflects nursing’s unique contribution to patient outcomes.
6. Evaluate data from all relevant sources, including technology, to inform the delivery of care.
7. Recognize the role of information technology in improving patient care outcomes and creating a safe care environment.
8. Uphold ethical standards related to data security, regulatory requirements, confidentiality, and clients’ right to privacy.
9. Apply patientcare technologies as appropriate to address the needs of a diverse patient population.
10. Advocate for the use of new patient care technologies for safe, quality care.
11. Recognize that redesign of workflow and care processes should precede implementation of care technology to facilitate nursing practice.
12. Participate in evaluation of information systems in practice settings through policy and procedure development.
• use of patient care technologies (e.g., monitors, pumps, computerassisted devices)
• use of technology and information systems for clinical decisionmaking • computer skills that may include basic software, spreadsheet, and healthcare
databases • information management for patient safety • regulatory requirements through electronic data monitoring systems • ethical and legal issues related to the use of information technology, including
copyright, privacy, and confidentiality issues • retrieval information systems, including access, evaluation of data, and
application of relevant data to patient care • online literature searches • technological resources for evidencebased practice • webbased learning and online literature searches for self and patient use • technology and information systems safeguards (e.g., patient monitoring,
equipment, patient identification systems, drug alerts and IV systems, and barcoding)
• interstate practice regulations (e.g., licensure, telehealth) • technology for virtual care delivery and monitoring • principles related to nursing workload measurement/resources and information
systems • information literacy • electronic health record/physician order entry
• decisionsupport tools • role of the nurse informaticist in the context of health informatics and information
Essential V: Healthcare Policy, Finance, and Regulatory Environments
Healthcare policies, including financial and regulatory policies, directly and indirectly influence nursing practice as well as the nature and functioning of the healthcare system. These policies shape responses to organizational, local, national, and global issues of equity, access, affordability, and social justice in health care. Healthcare policies also are central to any discussion about quality and safety in the practice environment.
The baccalaureateeducated graduate will have a solid understanding of the broader context of health care, including how patient care services are organized and financed, and how reimbursement is structured. Regulatory agencies define boundaries of nursing practice, and graduates need to understand the scope and role of these agencies. Baccalaureate graduates also will understand how healthcare issues are identified, how healthcare policy is both developed and changed, and how that process can be influenced through the efforts of nurses, and other healthcare professionals, as well as lay and special advocacy groups.
Healthcare policy shapes the nature, quality, and safety of the practice environment and all professional nurses have the responsibility to participate in the political process and advocate for patients, families, communities, the nursing profession, and changes in the healthcare system as needed. Advocacy for vulnerable populations with the goal of promoting social justice is recognized as moral and ethical responsibilities of the nurse.
The baccalaureate program prepares the graduate to:
1. Demonstrate basic knowledge of healthcare policy, finance, and regulatory environments, including local, state, national, and global healthcare trends.
2. Describe how health care is organized and financed, including the implications of business principles, such as patient and system cost factors.
3. Compare the benefits and limitations of the major forms of reimbursement on the delivery of health care services.
4. Examine legislative and regulatory processes relevant to the provision of health care.
5. Describe state and national statutes, rules, and regulations that authorize and define professional nursing practice.
6. Explore the impact of sociocultural, economic, legal, and political factors influencing healthcare delivery and practice.
7. Examine the roles and responsibilities of the regulatory agencies and their effect on patient care quality, workplace safety, and the scope of nursing and other health professionals’ practice.
8. Discuss the implications of healthcare policy on issues of access, equity, affordability, and social justice in healthcare delivery.
9. Use an ethical framework to evaluate the impact of social policies on health care, especially for vulnerable populations.
10. Articulate, through a nursing perspective, issues concerning healthcare delivery to decision makers within healthcare organizations and other policy arenas.
11. Participate as a nursing professional in political processes and grassroots legislative efforts to influence healthcare policy.
12. Advocate for consumers and the nursing profession.
• policy development and the legislative process • policy development and the regulatory process • licensure and regulation of nursing practice • social policy/public policy • policy analysis and evaluation • healthcare financing and reimbursement • economics of health care • consumerism and advocacy • political activism and professional organizations • disparities in the healthcare system • impact of social trends such as genetics and genomics, childhood obesity, and
aging on health policy • role of nurse as patient advocate • ethical and legal issues • professional organizations’ role in healthcare policy, finance and regulatory
environments • scope of practice and policy perspectives of other health professionals • negligence, malpractice, and risk management • Nurse Practice Act
Essential VI: Interprofessional Communication and Collaboration for Improving Patient Health Outcomes
Effective communication and collaboration among health professionals is imperative to providing patientcentered care. All health professions are challenged to educate future clinicians to deliver patientcentered care as members of an interprofessional team, emphasizing communication, evidencebased practice, quality improvement approaches, and informatics (IOM, 2003a). Interprofessional education is defined as interactive educational activities involving two or more professions that foster collaboration to improve patient care (Freeth, Hammick, Koppel, & Reeves, 2002). Teamwork among healthcare professionals is associated with delivering high quality and safe patient care (Barnsteiner, Disch, Hall, Mayer, & Moore, 2007). Collaboration is based on the complementarities of roles and the understanding of these roles by the members of the healthcare teams.
Interprofessional education enables the baccalaureate graduate to enter the workplace with baseline competencies and confidence for interactions and with communication skills that will improve practice, thus yielding better patient outcomes. Interprofessional education can occur in a variety of settings. An essential component for the establishment of collegial relationships is recognition of the unique disciplinespecific practice spheres. Fundamental to effective interprofessional and intraprofessional collaboration is a definition of shared goals; clear role expectations of members; a flexible decisionmaking process; and the establishment of open communication patterns and leadership. Thus, interprofessional education optimizes opportunities for the development of respect and trust for other members of the healthcare team.
The baccalaureate program prepares the graduate to:
1. Compare/contrast the roles and perspectives of the nursing profession with other care professionals on the healthcare team (i.e., scope of discipline, education and licensure requirements).
2. Use inter and intraprofessional communication and collaborative skills to deliver evidencebased, patientcentered care.
3. Incorporate effective communication techniques, including negotiation and conflict resolution to produce positive professional working relationships.
4. Contribute the unique nursing perspective to interprofessional teams to optimize patient outcomes.
5. Demonstrate appropriate teambuilding and collaborative strategies when working with interprofessional teams.
6. Advocate for high quality and safe patient care as a member of the interprofessional team.
• interprofessional and intraprofessional communication, collaboration, and socialization, with consideration of principles related to communication with diverse cultures
• teamwork/concepts of teambuilding/cooperative learning • professional roles, knowledge translation, role boundaries, and diverse
disciplinary perspectives • relationship building • navigating complex systems, system facilitation • interdependence and resource sharing of healthcare professions • individual accountability/shared accountability • advocacy • ethical codes and core values of different healthcare professions • autonomy • safety • scopes of practice • conflict management, conflict resolution strategies, and negotiation • group dynamics • principles of referral process for specialized services • participatory decisionmaking • caring
Essential VII: Clinical Prevention and Population Health
Health promotion, disease, and injury prevention across the lifespan are essential elements of baccalaureate nursing practice at the individual and population levels. These concepts are necessary to improve population health. Epidemiologic studies show that lifestyle, environmental, and genetic factors are major determinants of population health in areas of health, illness, disease, disability, and mortality (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000a). Thus, acute care and diseasebased episodic interventions alone are inadequate for improving health (Allan et al., 2004; Allan, Stanley, Crabtree, Werner, & Swenson, 2005). Health promotion along with disease and injury prevention are important throughout the lifespan and include assisting individuals, families, groups, communities, and populations to prepare for and minimize health consequences of emergencies, including mass casualty disasters.
Clinical prevention refers to individually focused interventions such as immunizations, screenings, and counseling aimed at preventing escalation of diseases and conditions. (Allan, Stanley, Crabtree, Werner, & Swenson, 2005) Because these interventions are relevant across the lifespan, nurses need knowledge about growth and development as well as evidencebased clinical prevention practices. Nurses collaborate with other healthcare professionals and patients for improving health through clinical prevention.
In populationfocused nursing, the aggregate, community, or population is the unit of care. Emphasis is placed on health promotion and disease prevention. Because populationfocused care is fundamental to nursing practice, and because a baccalaureate degree in nursing is the recommended minimal educational credential for population focused care, baccalaureate programs prepare graduates for population health as well as clinical prevention (AACN, 1998; American Public Health Association, 1996; Quad Council of Public Health Nursing Organizations, 2004). Populationfocused nursing involves identifying determinants of health, prioritizing primary prevention when possible, actively identifying and reaching out to those who might benefit from a service, and using available resources to assure best overall improvement in the health of the population (American Nurses Association, 2007). For instance, populationfocused interventions involve reaching an appropriate level of herd immunity in the community and ensuring that information about appropriate screenings reach the entire population, not just those who choose to come to healthcare facilities. Collaboration with other healthcare professionals and populations is necessary to promote conditions and healthy behaviors that improve population health.
The baccalaureate program prepares the graduate to:
1. Assess protective and predictive factors, including genetics, which influence the health of individuals, families, groups, communities, and populations.
2. Conduct a health history, including environmental exposure and a family history that recognizes genetic risks, to identify current and future health problems.
3. Assess health/illness beliefs, values, attitudes, and practices of individuals, families, groups, communities, and populations.
4. Use behavioral change techniques to promote health and manage illness.
5. Use evidencebased practices to guide health teaching, health counseling, screening, outreach, disease and outbreak investigation, referral, and followup throughout the lifespan.
6. Use information and communication technologies in preventive care.
7. Collaborate with other healthcare professionals and patients to provide spiritually and culturally appropriate health promotion and disease and injury prevention interventions.
8. Assess the health, healthcare, and emergency preparedness needs of a defined population.
9. Use clinical judgment and decisionmaking skills in appropriate, timely nursing care during disaster, mass casualty, and other emergency situations.
10. Collaborate with others to develop an intervention plan that takes into account determinants of health, available resources, and the range of activities that contribute to health and the prevention of illness, injury, disability, and premature death.
11. Participate in clinical prevention and populationfocused interventions with attention to effectiveness, efficiency, costeffectiveness, and equity.
12. Advocate for social justice, including a commitment to the health of vulnerable populations and the elimination of health disparities.
13. Use evaluation results to influence the delivery of care, deployment of resources, and to provide input into the development of policies to promote health and prevent disease.
• prevention and harm reduction • ecological model as framework for understanding determinants of health • public health principles • fundamentals of epidemiology and biostatistics (distribution, incidence, prevalence,
rates, risk factors, health status indicators, and control of disease in populations) • public health core functions • systems theory • ethical, legal, and economic principles related to clinical prevention and population
health • cultural, psychological, and spiritual implications of clinical prevention and
population health • environmental health risks • health literacy • health behavior change theories • theoretical foundations and principles of individual and populationfocused
education and counseling • genetics and genomics • nutrition • global health • occupational health, including ergonomics
• evidencebased clinical prevention practices • complementary and alternative therapies • population assessment • individual and populationfocused interventions (e.g. weight control, nicotine
management, social marketing, policy development) • health surveillance • health disparities and vulnerable populations • screening • immunization • pharmaceutical preventive strategies • communicating and sharing health information with the public • risk communication • emergency preparedness and disaster response including self protection • using technology in population focused care and clinical prevention • outcome measurement • pedigree from a threegeneration family health history using standardized symbols
Essential VIII: Professionalism and Professional Values
Professional values and their associated behaviors are foundational to the practice of nursing. Inherent in professional practice is an understanding of the historical, legal, and contemporary context of nursing practice. Professionalism is defined as the consistent demonstration of core values evidenced by nurses working with other professionals to achieve optimal health and wellness outcomes in patients, families, and communities by wisely applying principles of altruism, excellence, caring, ethics, respect, communication, and accountability (Interprofessional Professionalism Measurement Group, 2008). Professionalism also involves accountability for one’s self and nursing practice, including continuous professional engagement and lifelong learning. As discussed in the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nursing (2005, p.16), “The nurse is responsible for individual nursing practice and determines the appropriate delegation of tasks consistent with the nurse’s obligation to provide optimum patient care.” Also, inherent in accountability is responsibility for individual actions and behaviors, including civility. In order to demonstrate professionalism, civility must be present. Civility is a fundamental set of accepted behaviors for a society/culture upon which professional behaviors are based (Hammer, 2003).
Professional nursing has enjoyed a long tradition of high respect from the public (Gallup Poll, 2006). A primary reason for this recognition is the caring and compassion of the nurse. Caring is a concept central to professional nursing practice. Caring as related to this Essential encompasses the nurse’s empathy for, connection to, and being with the patient, as well as the ability to translate these affective characteristics into compassionate, sensitive, and patientcentered care. Historically, nurses have provided
care for patients within a context of privileged intimacy; a space into which a nurse is allowed and in partnership with the patient creates a unique, healing relationship. Through this connection, the nurse and patient work toward an understanding of a wide variety of physical, psychosocial, cultural, and spiritual needs, healthillness decisions, and life challenges. Professional nursing requires a balance between evidencebased knowledge, skills, and attitudes and professional confidence, maturity, caring, and compassion. In this global society, patient populations are increasingly diverse. Therefore, essential to the care of diverse populations is the need for evidencebased knowledge and sensitivity to variables such as age, gender, culture, health disparities, socioeconomic status, race, and spirituality. Baccalaureate graduates are prepared to care for atrisk patients, including the very young and the frail elderly, and to assist patients with decisionmaking about endoflife concerns within the context of the patient’s value system. In addition, nurses are prepared to work with patients across the lifespan who require genetic technologies and treatments.
Baccalaureate education includes the development of professional values and valuebased behavior. Understanding the values that patients and other health professionals bring to the therapeutic relationship is critically important to providing quality patient care. Baccalaureate graduates are prepared for the numerous dilemmas that will arise in practice and are able to make and assist others in making decisions within a professional ethical framework. Ethics is an integral part of nursing practice and has always involved respect and advocacy for the rights and needs of patients regardless of setting. Honesty and acting ethically are two key elements of professional behavior, which have a major impact on patient safety. A blamefree culture of accountability and an environment of safety are important for encouraging team members to report errors. Such an environment enhances the safety of all patients.
The following professional values epitomize the caring, professional nurse. Nurses, guided by these values, demonstrate ethical behavior in patient care.
Altruism is a concern for the welfare and well being of others. In professional practice, altruism is reflected by the nurse’s concern and advocacy for the welfare of patients, other nurses, and other healthcare providers.
Autonomy is the right to selfdetermination. Professional practice reflects autonomy when the nurse respects patients’ rights to make decisions about their health care.
Human Dignity is respect for the inherent worth and uniqueness of individuals and populations. In professional practice, concern for human dignity is reflected when the nurse values and respects all patients and colleagues.
Integrity is acting in accordance with an appropriate code of ethics and accepted standards of practice. Integrity is reflected in professional practice when the nurse is honest and provides care based on an ethical framework that is accepted within the profession.
Social Justice is acting in accordance with fair treatment regardless of economic status, race, ethnicity, age, citizenship, disability, or sexual orientation.
The baccalaureate program prepares the graduate to:
1. Demonstrate the professional standards of moral, ethical, and legal conduct.
2. Assume accountability for personal and professional behaviors.
3. Promote the image of nursing by modeling the values and articulating the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of the nursing profession.
4. Demonstrate professionalism, including attention to appearance, demeanor, respect for self and others, and attention to professional boundaries with patients and families as well as among caregivers.
5. Demonstrate an appreciation of the history of and contemporary issues in nursing and their impact on current nursing practice.
6. Reflect on one’s own beliefs and values as they relate to professional practice.
7. Identify personal, professional, and environmental risks that impact personal and professional choices and behaviors.
8. Communicate to the healthcare team one’s personal bias on difficult healthcare decisions that impact one’s ability to provide care.
9. Recognize the impact of attitudes, values, and expectations on the care of the very young, frail older adults, and other vulnerable populations.
10. Protect patient privacy and confidentiality of patient records and other privileged communications.
11. Access interprofessional and intraprofessional resources to resolve ethical and other practice dilemmas.
12. Act to prevent unsafe, illegal, or unethical care practices.
13. Articulate the value of pursuing practice excellence, lifelong learning, and professional engagement to foster professional growth and development.
14. Recognize the relationship between personal health, self renewal, and the ability to deliver sustained quality care.
• Nurse Practice Acts and scope of practice • professional codes of conduct and professional standards (e.g., ANA, Code of
Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements, 2005; International Council of Nursing, Code of Ethics for Nurses, 2006, and AACN’s Hallmarks of the Professional Nursing Practice Environment, 2002)
• ethical and legal frameworks and social implications • communication • interprofessional teams and team building concepts • cultural humility and spiritual awareness • health disparities • history of nursing • contemporary nursing issues • problem solving methods such as appreciative inquiry • professional accountability • stereotypes and biases, such as gender, race, and age discrimination • nurse self care/stress management strategies • human rights • informed consent • professional identity formation • privacy, confidentiality • moral agency • professional image • self reflection, personal knowing, personal selfcare plan • professional organizations, particularly nursing and healthcare organizations
Essential IX: Baccalaureate Generalist Nursing Practice
Essential IX describes generalist nursing practice at the completion of baccalaureate nursing education. This Essential includes practicefocused outcomes that integrate the knowledge, skills, and attitudes delineated in Essentials I VIII into the nursing care of individuals, families, groups, communities, and populations in a variety of settings. Because professional nurses are the human link between the patient and the complex healthcare environment, they must provide compassionate care informed by a scientific base of knowledge, including current evidence from nursing research. Essential IX recognizes that the integration of knowledge and skills is critical to practice. Practice occurs across the lifespan and in the continuum of healthcare environments. The baccalaureate graduate demonstrates clinical reasoning within the context of patient centered care to form the basis for nursing practice that reflects ethical values.
Knowledge acquisition related to wellness, health promotion, illness, disease management and care of the dying is core to nursing practice. In addition, acquisition of communication and psychomotor skills is critical to providing nursing care. Skill development will focus on the mastery of core scientific principles that underlie all skills, thus preparing the baccalaureate graduate to incorporate current and future technical skills into other nursing responsibilities and apply skills in diverse contexts of healthcare delivery. Direct care may be delivered in person or virtually and that care is based on a shared understanding with the patient and the healthcare team. This base of knowledge and skills prepares the graduate for practice as a member and leader of the interprofessional healthcare team.
Baccalaureateeducated nurses will be prepared to care for patients across the lifespan, from the very young to the older adult. Special attention will be paid to changing demographics. Among these demographics are the increased prevalence of chronic illnesses and comorbidities among all ages, including those related to mental disorders, specifically depression. However, there is clear evidence that the largest group seeking and receiving healthcare services is the older adult population. The graduate will understand and respect the variations of care, the increased complexity, and the increased use of healthcare resources inherent in caring for patients who are vulnerable due to age, the very young and very old, as well as disabilities and chronic disease.
The increasing diversity of this nation’s population mandates an attention to diversity in order to provide safe, humanistic high quality care. This includes cultural, spiritual, ethnic, gender, and sexual orientation diversity. In addition, the increasing globalization of healthcare requires that professional nurses be prepared to practice in a multicultural environment and possess the skills needed to provide culturally competent care.
Baccalaureate graduates will have knowledge, skills, and attitudes that prepare them for a longterm career in a changing practice environment. The increased prevalence of chronic illness is a result of an increasingly older adult population, environmental threats, lifestyles that increase risk of disease, and enhanced technological and therapeutic interventions that prolong life. In addition to primary prevention, the professional nurse provides support for management of chronic illness, health education, and patient centered care in partnership with the patient and the interprofessional team. Patients and their families often are knowledgeable about health care; therefore, the graduate will be able to communicate with these consumers and appreciate the importance of the care partnership.
Graduates translate, integrate, and apply knowledge that leads to improvements in patient outcomes. Knowledge is increasingly complex and evolving rapidly. For example, genetics and genomics are areas where knowledge is escalating and the graduate will be cognizant of customized therapies designed to improve care outcomes. Therefore, baccalaureate graduates will be expected to focus on continuous selfevaluation and lifelong learning.
The baccalaureate program prepares the graduate to:
1. Conduct comprehensive and focused physical, behavioral, psychological, spiritual, socioeconomic, and environmental assessments of health and illness parameters in patients, using developmentally and culturally appropriate approaches.
2. Recognize the relationship of genetics and genomics to health, prevention, screening, diagnostics, prognostics, selection of treatment, and monitoring of treatment effectiveness, using a constructed pedigree from collected family history information as well as standardized symbols and terminology.
3. Implement holistic, patientcentered care that reflects an understanding of human growth and development, pathophysiology, pharmacology, medical management, and nursing management across the healthillness continuum, across the lifespan, and in all healthcare settings.
4. Communicate effectively with all members of the healthcare team, including the patient and the patient’s support network.
5. Deliver compassionate, patientcentered, evidencebased care that respects patient and family preferences.
6. Implement patient and family care around resolution of endoflife and palliative care issues, such as symptom management, support of rituals, and respect for patient and family preferences.
7. Provide appropriate patient teaching that reflects developmental stage, age, culture, spirituality, patient preferences, and health literacy considerations to foster patient engagement in their care.
8. Implement evidencebased nursing interventions as appropriate for managing the acute and chronic care of patients and promoting health across the lifespan.
9. Monitor client outcomes to evaluate the effectiveness of psychobiological interventions.
10. Facilitate patientcentered transitions of care, including discharge planning and ensuring the caregiver’s knowledge of care requirements to promote safe care.
11. Provide nursing care based on evidence that contributes to safe and high quality patient outcomes within healthcare microsystems.
12. Create a safe care environment that results in high quality patient outcomes.
13. Revise the plan of care based on an ongoing evaluation of patient outcomes.
14. Demonstrate clinical judgment and accountability for patient outcomes when delegating to and supervising other members of the healthcare team.
15. Manage care to maximize health, independence, and quality of life for a group of individuals that approximates a beginning practitioner’s workload
16. Demonstrate the application of psychomotor skills for the efficient, safe, and compassionate delivery of patient care.
17. Develop a beginning understanding of complementary and alternative modalities and their role in health care.
18. Develop an awareness of patients as well as healthcare professionals’ spiritual beliefs and values and how those beliefs and values impact health care.
19. Manage the interaction of multiple functional problems affecting patients across the lifespan, including common geriatric syndromes.
20. Understand one’s role and participation in emergency preparedness and disaster response with an awareness of environmental factors and the risks they pose to self and patients.
21. Engage in caring and healing techniques that promote a therapeutic nursepatient relationship.
22. Demonstrate tolerance for the ambiguity and unpredictability of the world and its effect on the healthcare system as related to nursing practice.
• theories of human growth and development • principles of basic nursing care (e.g., skin, mobility, pain management, immediate
patient care environment, etc.) • patient and familycentered care • management of acute and chronic physical and psychosocial conditions across the
lifespan • integration of pathophysiology into care • care across the lifespan focusing on changing demographics with an emphasis on
care of older adults and the very young. • palliative and endoflife care • common geriatric syndromes • genetics and genomics
• nutrition • emergency preparedness and disaster response • bioterrorism • infection control issues, such as drug resistant organisms and management • caring and healing techniques • psychobiological interventions • milieu therapy • depression screening • health promotion • patient advocacy • disparities • complementary and alternative therapies • spiritual care • therapeutic communication • culturally diverse care • evidencebased practice • pharmacology/pharmacogenetics • nursing care management • prioritization of patient care needs • principles of delegating and monitoring care • leadership • information management systems • integrating technology into practice • resource management • teaching/learning principles
Expectations for Clinical Experiences within the Baccalaureate Program
Baccalaureate programs provide rich and varied opportunities for practice experiences designed to assist graduates to achieve the Baccalaureate Essentials upon completion of their program. Clinical experiences are essential for baccalaureate nursing programs to prepare students to care for a variety of patients across the lifespan and across the continuum of care. In addition clinical experiences assist the graduate to:
• develop proficiency in performing psychomotor skills; • apply professional communication strategies to client and interprofessional
interactions; and • acquire a professional identity.
Clinical learning is focused on developing and refining the knowledge and skills necessary to manage care as part of an interprofessional team. Theoretical learning becomes reality as students are coached to make connections between the standard case or situation that is presented in the classroom or laboratory setting and the constantly shifting reality of actual patient care. Clinical educators for baccalaureate programs are well informed about the specific learning that is taking place in the classroom and
laboratory setting and find clinical education opportunities to reinforce and apply that learning. Programs provide clinical placements across the range of practice settings and across the continuum of care that are safe, supportive, and conducive for groups of students to practice and learn professional roles. Clinical practice opportunities expose students to practice issues such as technological innovations, accelerated care transitions, an unpredictable fastpaced environment, and complex system issues, which are all important in preparing the students for practice following graduation. In addition, clinical practice opportunities provide students with experiences and nursing role models that prepare them for practice in complex, changing healthcare environments.
Simulation experiences augment clinical learning and are complementary to direct care opportunities essential to assuming the role of the professional nurse. Laboratory and simulation experiences provide an effective, safe environment for learning and applying the cognitive and performance skills needed for practice. Realitybased, simulated patient care experiences increase selfconfidence in communication and psychomotor skills, and professional role development. Beginning research supports the use of simulation in nursing education. Nehring, Ellis, and Lashley (2001) describe the use of human patient simulators in nursing education as an excellent tool to measure competency in the application of knowledge and technical skills. Debriefing, or feedback to the students, is as essential for simulation as it is for instruction in the clinical setting (National Council of State Boards of Nursing, 2005). Simulation is a valuable element of clinical preparation. However, patient care experiences with actual patients form the most important component of clinical education. Over time, as evidence emerges regarding the use of simulation as a substitute for actual patient experience, the balance between actual and simulated patient care may change.
Direct patient care clinical experiences provide valuable opportunities for student learning not found in other experiences. Early learning experiences, including providing care for a limited number of patients, allow students to explore the challenging world of clinical practice. As students become more experienced, increasingly complex clinical learning opportunities are selected to provide a sufficient breadth and depth of learning to develop the competence necessary for entrylevel practice with diverse patients across the life span in various types of settings. Through an immersion experience, students have the opportunity to develop increasing autonomy and assume an assignment that more closely approximates a realistic workload of a novice nurse in that environment.
A clinical immersion experience provides opportunities for building clinical reasoning, management, and evaluation skills. These opportunities increase the student’s self confidence, professional image, and sense of belonging that facilitate the transition to competent and confident practice. Immersion experiences allow students to integrate previous learning and more fully develop the roles of the baccalaureate generalist nurse:
• provider of care evaluate client changes and progress over time develop a beginning proficiency and efficiency in delivering safe care
• designer/manager/coordinator of care manage care transitions
be an active participant on the interprofessional team identify system issues develop working skills in delegation, prioritization, and oversight of care
• member of a profession evaluate one’s own practice assume responsibility for supporting the profession
An immersion experience provides faculty opportunities to observe student performance over time and more effectively evaluate the student’s professional development.
Graduates of all types of baccalaureate programs need sufficient didactic, laboratory, and clinical experiences to attain the endofprogram outcomes of these Essentials. The nursing program determines and assesses clinical sites to ensure the clinical experiences for students provide: • patients from diverse backgrounds, cultures, and of differing gender, religious, and
spiritual practices; • the continuum of care, including populationfocused care; • all age groups, including the very young and the frail elderly; and • comprehensive learning opportunities to promote integration of baccalaureate
learning outcomes that prepare the graduate for professional nursing practice.
The Essentials for Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice serves to transform baccalaureate nursing education and are a dramatic revision of the 1998 version. Further, these Essentials meet the IOM’s recommendations for core knowledge needed for all healthcare professionals (IOM, 2003b). Due to the everchanging and complex healthcare environment, this document emphasizes such concepts as patient centered care, interprofessional teams, evidencebased practice, quality improvement, patient safety, informatics, clinical reasoning/critical thinking, genetics and genomics, cultural sensitivity, professionalism, practice across the lifespan, and endoflife care.
Essentials IIX delineate the outcomes expected for baccalaureate nursing program graduates. Achievement of these outcomes will enable the baccalaureateprepared generalist nurse to practice within complex healthcare systems and assume the roles:
• provider of care evaluate client changes and progress over time develop a beginning proficiency and efficiency in delivering safe care
• designer/manager/coordinator of care manage care transitions be an active participant on the interprofessional team identify system issues develop working skills in delegation, prioritization, and oversight of care
• member of a profession evaluate one’s own practice assume responsibility for supporting the profession
Essential IX describes generalist nursing practice at the completion of baccalaureate nursing education. This Essential includes practicefocused outcomes that integrate the knowledge, skills, and attitudes delineated in Essentials I – VIII. The time needed to accomplish each Essential will vary, and each Essential does not require a separate course for achievement of the outcomes. Learning opportunities, including clinical experiences, must be sufficient in breadth and depth to ensure the graduate attains these practice focused outcomes and integrates this knowledge and these skills into one’s professional nursing practice.
Baccalaureate graduates translate, integrate, and apply knowledge that leads to improvements in patient outcomes. Knowledge is increasingly complex and evolving rapidly. Therefore, baccalaureate graduates are expected to focus on continuous self evaluation and lifelong learning.
Critical Thinking: All or part of the process of questioning, analysis, synthesis, interpretation, inference, inductive and deductive reasoning, intuition, application, and creativity (AACN, 1998). Critical thinking underlies independent and interdependent decision making.
Clinical Judgment: The outcomes of critical thinking in nursing practice. Clinical judgments begin with an end in mind. Judgments are about evidence, meaning and outcomes achieved (Pesut, 2001).
Clinical Reasoning: The process used to assimilate information, analyze data, and make decisions regarding patient care (Simmons, Lanuza, Fonteyn, & Hicks, 2003).
Clinical Prevention: Individually focused interventions such as immunizations, screenings, and counseling, aimed at preventing escalation of diseases and conditions.
Cultural Humility: Incorporates a lifelong commitment to selfevaluation and self critique, to redressing the power imbalances in the patientclinician dynamic, and to developing mutually beneficial and advocacy partnerships with communities on behalf of individuals and defined populations. Cultural humility is proposed as a more suitable goal than cultural competence in healthcare education (Tervalon & MurrayGarcia, 1998).
Cultural Sensitivity: Cultural sensitivity is experienced when neutral language, both verbal and not verbal, is used in a way that reflects sensitivity and appreciation for the diversity of another. Cultural sensitivity may be conveyed through words, phrases, and categorizations that are intentionally avoided, especially when referring to any individual who may be interpreted as impolite or offensive (American Academy of Nursing Expert Panel on Cultural Competence, 2007).
DecisionSupport System (Clinical): Interactive computer programs designed to assist clinicians with decision making tasks. Clinical decisionsupport systems link health observations with health knowledge to influence choices by clinicians for improved health care.
Diversity: The range of human variation, including age, race, gender, disability, ethnicity, nationality, religious and spiritual beliefs, sexual orientation, political beliefs, economic status, native language, and geographical background.
Evidencebased Practice: Care that integrates the best research with clinical expertise and patient values for optimum care (IOM, 2003b).
Health Determinants: Complex interrelationships of factors, such as the social and economic environment, the physical environment, individual characteristics, and behaviors that influence health.
Health Literacy: The degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000b)
Healthcare Team: The patient plus all of the healthcare professionals who care for the patient. The patient is an integral member of the healthcare team.
Herd Immunity: Immunity of a sufficient proportion of the population to reduce the probability of infection of susceptible members of that population.
Immersion Experience: Clinical experiences with a substantive number of hours in a consistent clinical setting over a concentrated period of time.
Information Technology: The study, design, development implementation, support, or management of computerbased information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware.
Integrative Strategies for Learning: Coherent organization of educational practices that integrate general education concepts throughout the major, through the widespread use of powerful, active, and collaborative instructional methods (Association of American Colleges and Universities, 2004) .
Interprofessional: Working across healthcare professions to cooperate, collaborate, communicate, and integrate care in teams to ensure that care is continuous and reliable. The team consists of the patient, the nurse, and other healthcare providers as appropriate (IOM, 2003b).
Intraprofessional: Working with healthcare team members within the profession to ensure that care is continuous and reliable.
Microsystem: The structural unit responsible for delivering care to specific patient populations or the frontline places where patients, families, and care teams meet (Nelson, Batalden, Godfrey, 2007).
Moral Agency: A person’s capacity for making ethical judgments. Most philosophers suggest that only rational beings, people who can reason and form selfinterested judgments, are capable of being moral agents.
Multidimensional Care: Relating to or having several dimensions; it speaks to the fullness of the patientclinician experience, but also to people’s lives in general. Spirituality is one of those many dimensions.
Nurse Sensitive Indicators: Measures of processes and outcomes—and structural proxies for these processes and outcomes (e.g., skill mix, nurse staffing hours)—that are affected, provided, and influenced by nursing personnel, but for which nursing is not exclusively responsible (National Quality Forum, 2003).
Outcome: Broad performance indicator, related to the knowledge, skills, and attitudes, needed by a baccalaureate graduate.
Patient: The recipient of nursing care or services. This term was selected for consistency and in recognition and support of the historically established tradition of the nursepatient relationship. Patients may be individuals, families, groups, communities, or populations. Further, patients may function in independent, interdependent, or dependent roles, and may seek or receive nursing interventions related to disease prevention, health promotion, or health maintenance, as well as illness and endoflife care. Depending on the context or setting, patients may, at times, more appropriately be termed clients, consumers, or customers of nursing services (AACN, 1998, p. 2).
Patientcentered Care: Includes actions to identify, respect and care about patients’ differences, values, preferences, and expressed needs; relieve pain and suffering; coordinate continuous care; listen to, clearly inform, communicate with, and educate patients; share decision making and management; and continuously advocate disease prevention, wellness, and promotion of healthy lifestyles, including a focus on population health (IOM, 2003b).
Population Health Interventions: Actions intended to improve the health of a collection of individuals having personal or environmental characteristics in common. Population health interventions are based on populationfocused assessments.
Professional Nurse: An individual prepared with a minimum of a baccalaureate in nursing but is also inclusive of one who enters professional practice with a master’s degree in nursing or a nursing doctorate (AACN, 1998).
Simulation: An activity that mimics the reality of a clinical environment and is designed to demonstrate procedures, decisionmaking, and critical thinking through techniques
such as roleplaying and the use of devices (e.g., interactive videos, mannequins) (National Council of State Boards of Nursing, 2005).
Spiritual Care: “Interventions, individual or communal, that facilitate the ability to experience the integration of the body, mind, and spirit to achieve wholeness, health, and a sense of connection to self, others, and a higher power” (American Nurses Association and Health Ministries Association, 2005, p. 38).
Spirituality: Speaks to what gives ultimate meaning and purpose to one’s life. It is that part of people that seeks healing and reconciliation with self or others (Puchalski, 2006).
Vulnerable Populations: Refers to social groups with increased relative risk (i.e., exposure to risk factors) or susceptibility to healthrelated problems. The vulnerability is evidenced in higher comparative mortality rates, lower life expectancy, reduced access to care, and diminished quality of life (Center for Vulnerable Populations Research, UCLA School of Nursing, 2008).
Allan, J., Barwick, T. A., Cashman, S., Cawley, J. F., Day, C., Douglass, C. W., Evans, C. H. Garr, D. R., Maeshiro, R., McCarthy, R. L., Meyer, S. M., Riegelman, R., Seifer, S .D., Stanley, J., Swenson, M., Teitelbaum, H .S., Timothe, P., Werner, K. E., & Wood., D. (2004). Clinical prevention and population health curriculum framework for health professions. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27(5), 471481.
Allan, J. D., Stanley, J., Crabtree, M. K., Werner, K. E., & Swenson, M. (2005). Clinical prevention and population health curriculum framework: The nursing perspective. Journal of Professional Nursing, 21(5), 259267.
American Academy of Nursing Expert Panel on Cultural Competence (In press). American Academy of Nursing Standards of Cultural Competence.
American Association of Colleges of Nursing (1998). The essentials of baccalaureate education for professional nursing practice. Washington, DC: Author.
American Association of Colleges of Nursing (2002) Hallmarks of the professional nursing practice environment. Retrieved August 18, 2008, from http://www.aacn.nche.edu/Publications/positions/hallmarks.htm
American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2006a). The essentials of doctoral education for advanced nursing practice. Retrieved August 18, 2008, from www.nche.edu/DNP/pdf/Essentials.pdf
American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2006b). Position statement on nursing research. Retrieved August 18, 2008, from http://www.aacn.nche.edu/Publications/pdf/NsgResearch.pdf
American Hospital Association (2002). In our hands: How hospital leaders can build a thriving workforce. Washington, DC: Author.
American Nurses Association. (2005) Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements. Silver Spring, MD: Author.
American Nurses Association (2007). Public health nursing: Scope and standards of practice. Silver Spring, MD: Author.
American Nurses Association (2008). Draft position statement: Mandatory implementation of an ANA recognized nursing terminology set in all professional nursing education programs. Silver Spring, Md: Author.
American Nurses Association and Health Ministries Association (2005). Faith community nursing: scope & standards of practice. Silver Spring, MD: ANA
American Public Health Association, Public Health Nursing Section (1996). Definition and role of public health nursing. Washington, D.C: Author.
Association of American Colleges and Universities (2004). Taking responsibility for the quality of the baccalaureate degree. Washington, DC: Author.
Association of American Colleges and Universities (2007). College learning for the new global century. Washington, DC: Author.
Barnsteiner, J., Disch, J. M., Hall, L., Mayer, D. & Moore, S.M. (2007). Promoting interprofessional education. Nursing Outlook, 55(3), 144150.
Buerhaus, P., Staiger, D. O., & Auerbach, D. I. (2008). The Future of the Nursing Workforce in the United States: Data, Trends and Implications. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. (In press). Précis of Chapters from Educating Nurses: Teaching and Learning for a Complex Practice of Care
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (n.d.). The guide to community preventive services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Access at http://www.thecommunityguide.org (Available from Division of Health Communication and Marketing, National Center for Health Marketing Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, NE, MS E69, Atlanta, GA 30333).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and The Merck Company Foundation (2007). The State of Aging and Health in America. Whitehouse Station, NJ: The Merck Company Foundation
Center for Vulnerable Population Research, UCLA School of Nursing (2008). Who are vulnerable populations? Retrieved August 18, 2008, http://www.nursing.ucla.edu/orgs/cvpr/whoarevulnerable.html
Cronenwett, L., Sherwood, G., Barnsteiner J., Disch, J., Johnson, J., Mitchell, P., Taylor Sullivan, D., & Warren, J. (2007). Quality and safety education for nurses. Nursing Outlook, 55(3), 122131.
Fang, D., Htut, A., & Bednash, G. (2008). 20072008 Enrollment and Graduations in Baccalaureate and Graduate Programs in Nursing. Washington, DC: American Association of Colleges of Nursing.
Freeth, D., Hammick, M., Koppel, I., & Reeves, S. (2002). Evaluating interprofessional education: Two systematic reviews for health and social care. British Educational Research Journal, 25(4), 533543.
Gallup Poll (2006). Honesty/ethics in professions. Retrieved August 18, 2008, from http://www.galluppoll.com/content/?ci=1654&pg=1
Hammer, D. (2003). Civility and professionalism in B. Berger (ed.), Promoting Civility in Pharmacy Education (pp.7191). Binghamton, NY: Pharmaceutical Products Press.
He, W., Sengupta, M., Velkoff , V., & DeBarros, K. (2005). Current Population Reports: 65+ in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau, Government Printing Office.
Hermann, M. L. (2004). Linking liberal and professional learning in nursing education. Liberal Education, 90(4): 4247.
Institute of Medicine. (2000). To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Institute of Medicine. (2001). Crossing the quality chasm. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Institute of Medicine (2003a). The future of the public’s health in the twentyfirst century. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Institute of Medicine (2003b). Health professions education: A bridge to quality. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Institute of Medicine. (2004). Keeping patients safe: Transforming the work environment of nurses. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
International Council of Nursing (2006). International code of ethics for nurses. Retrieved August 18, 2008, from http://www.icn.ch/icncode.pdf
Interprofessional Professionalism Measurement Group (2008). Interprofessional professionalism: What’s all the fuss? Presented at the American Physical Therapy Meeting on February 7, 2008 in Nashville, Tenn.
Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. (2002). Health care at the crossroads, Strategies for addressing the evolving nursing crisis. Chicago: Author.
Kimball, B. & O’Neill, E. (2002). Health care’s human crisis: The American nursing shortage. Princeton, NJ: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
McNeil, B. J., Elfrink, V., Beyea, S. C., Pierce, S. T., & Bickford, C. J. (2006). “Computer literacy study: report of qualitative findings.” Journal of Professional Nursing 22(1): 529.
McNeil, B. J., Elfrink, V. L., Bickford, C. J., Pierce, S. T., Beyea, S. C., Averill, C., & Klappenbach, C. (2003). “Nursing information technology knowledge, skills, and preparation of student nurses, nursing faculty, and clinicians: A US survey.” Journal of Nursing Education 42 (8):3419.
National Council of State Boards of Nursing (2005). Clinical instruction in Prelicensure Nursing Programs. Retrieved August 18, 2008, from https://www.ncsbn.org/Final_Clinical_Instr_Pre_Nsg_programs.pdf
National Quality Forum (2003). NQFendorsed TM national voluntary consensus standards for nursing sensitive care. Retrieved August 18, 2008, from http://www.qualityforum.org/nursing/#endorsed
Nehring, W. M., Ellis, W. E., & Lashley, F. R. (2001). Human patient simulators in nursing education: An overview. Simulation and Gaming, 32, 194204.
Nelson, E. A., Batalden, P. B., & Godfrey, M. M. (2007). Quality by design: A clinical microsystems approach. San Franciso, CA: JosseyBass.
Pesut, J. (2001). Clinical judgment: foreground/background. Journal of Professional Nursing, 17(5), 215.
Puchalski, C. (2006). Spiritual assessment in clinical practice. Psychiatric Annals, 36 (3), 150.
Quad Council of Public Health Nursing Organizations. (2004). Public health nursing competencies. Public Health Nursing, 21(5), 443452.
Rindfleisch, T. (1997). Privacy, information technology and healthcare. New York: ACM Press
Rothschild, J. M., Hurley, A.C., Landrigan, C. P., Cronin, J.W., et al. (2006,). Recovering from medical errors: The critical care nursing safety net. Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, 32(2), 6372.
Simmons, B., Lanuza, D., Fonteyn, M., & Hicks, F. (2003). Clinical reasoning in experienced nurses. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 25,701719.
Tervalon, M., & MurrayGarcia, J. (1998). Cultural humility versus cultural competence: A critical distinction in defining physician training outcomes in multicultural education. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 9(2), 117.
U.S. Census Bureau (2008). State and county quick facts. Retrieved August 18, 2008, from http://quickfacts.census.gov.gov/qfd/states/00000.html
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2000a, November). Healthy People 2010 (2nd ed.). (Vols. 12). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2000b). Plain language: A promising strategy for clearly communicating health information and improving health literacy. Retrieved August 18, 2008, from http://www.health.gov/communication/literacy/plainlanguage/PlainLanguage.htm
World Health Organization (2008). Core health indicators. Retrieved August 18, 2008, from http://www.who.int/whosis/database/core/core_select_process.cfm
Task Force on the Revision of The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing
Patricia Martin, PhD, RN chair Dean, Wright State University College of Nursing and Health
Carol A. Ashton, PhD, RN Associate Dean and Director, Idaho State University School of Nursing
Derryl Block, PhD, MPH, RN Chair, University of WisconsinGreen Bay Professional Program in Nursing
Daisy CruzRichman, PhD, RN Dean, SUNY Downstate Medical Center College of Nursing
Teri Murray, PhD, RN Dean, Saint Louis University School of Nursing
Linda Niedringhaus, PhD, RN, faculty representative Elmhurst College Deicke Center for Nursing Education
Donald “Chip” Bailey, PhD, RN, faculty representative Duke University School of Nursing
Jean W. Lange, PhD, RN, CNL, faculty representative Fairfield University School of Nursing
Roxanne A. Moutafis, MS, RN, BC, faculty representative The University of Arizona College of Nursing
Judith Sands, EdD, RN, faculty representative University of Virginia School of Nursing
Karen Drenkard, PhD, RN, NEABC, practice representative Chief Nurse Executive, INOVA Health Systems
Polly Bednash, PhD, RN, FAAN, staff liaison Executive Director
Kathy McGuinn, MSN, RN, CPHQ, staff liaison Director of Special Projects
Joan Stanley, PhD, RN, FAAN, staff liaison Senior Director of Education Policy
Horacio Oliveira, staff liaison Education Policy and Special Projects Assistant
APPENDIX B Consensus Process to Revise the Essentials of
Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice
In 2006, the AACN Board of Directors established a task force and charged this group to revise and update the 1998 Essentials document. This task force was comprised of individuals representing an array of experts in baccalaureate nursing education, including deans and faculty representatives. Additionally, a chief nurse executive represented the practice setting on the committee (see Appendix A). The task force began their work by reviewing the literature and considering the changes occurring in health care, higher education, and health professions education. In February 2007, the task force convened a group of 20 stakeholders representing leaders from higher education, professional nursing, and interprofessional education; in June 2007, three additional stakeholders met with the task force (see Appendix C). These leaders were asked to identify, from their own perspectives, the anticipated role of the professional nurse in the future healthcare system and the critical competencies needed to function in this role. These wideranging and lively discussions served as the basis for the development of a draft document that was then shared with nursing professionals on the AACN Web site in August 2007, prior to the beginning of the next phase of the revision process.
The next phase consisted of a series of five regional meetings from September 2007 to April 2008. The purpose of these meetings was to gather feedback and to build consensus about the Essentials draft document. Participants, including nurse educators, clinicians, administrators, and researchers representing a range of nursing programs, specialties, and organizations, discussed, debated, and made recommendations regarding the draft document. Over 700 individuals, representing all 50 states and the District of Columbia, participated in the consensusbuilding process. In addition, 329 schools of nursing, 11 professional organizations, and 13 healthcare delivery systems were represented (see Appendices D, E, & F). To ensure a broad base of nursing input, the task force sought the participation of a wide range of nursing organizations and many of these organizations such as the American Academy of Nursing, Sigma Theta Tau, and American Organization of Nurse Executives sent written feedback to the task force. Nursing administrators and clinicians were specifically asked to participate to ensure that the recommendations for nursing education would address future healthcare practice. Participants in the regional meetings were asked to focus on the rationale supporting each Essential and a list of end of program outcomes. In addition, the participants provided input into the development of supporting documents including a list of integrative learning strategies, quality indicators, and clinical learning environments. The process was iterative and following each of the regional meetings, an updated document was posted on the AACN Web site for review and comment. AACN member schools and the nursing community at large were able to provide ongoing feedback.
On July 19, 2008, the AACN Board unanimously approved the revised Essentials of Baccalaureate Nursing Education.
Appendix C Participants who attended Stakeholder Meetings (N=23)
Amy Berman John A. Hartford Foundation, Inc. Program Officer New York, NY
Linda Cronenwett Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) Chapel Hill, NC
Lisa Day The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching San Francisco, CA
Jerry Gaff Association of American Colleges & Universities (AAC&U) Senior Fellow Washington, DC
Jody Gandy Interprofessional Professionalism Group, American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) Director, Physical Therapy Education Alexandria, VA
Pam Hagan American Nurses Association (ANA) Chief Programs Officer Silver Spring, MD
Janie E. Heath American Association of CriticalCare Nurses (AACN) Past Board Member Aliso Viejo, CA
Jean Jenkins Advisory Group for Genetics and Genomics National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) Senior Clinical Advisor Bethesda, MD
Linda Olson Keller Association of State and Territorial Directors of Nursing (ASTDN) Project Director Arlington, VA
Darrell Kirch Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) President Washington, DC
Ellen Kurtzman National Quality Forum (NQF) Senior Program Director Washington, DC
Pam Malloy EndofLife Nursing Education Consortium (ELNEC) Project Director, AACN Washington, DC
Jeanne Matthews Quad Council of Public Health Nursing Organizations Chairelect, APHA Public Health Nursing (PHN) Section for the Quad Council Washington, DC
Leyla McCurdy National Environmental Education & Training Foundation (NEETF) Senior Director Washington, DC
Dula Pacquiao AACN Cultural Advisory Group, Associate Professor and Director School of Nursing University of Medicine & Dentistry of NJ Newark, NJ
Patricia Rutherford Institute for Health Care Improvement (IHI) Vice President Cambridge, MA
Douglas Scheckelhoff American Society of HealthSystem Pharmacists (ASHP) Director, Pharmacy Practice Sections Bethesda, MD
Nancy Spector National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) Director of Education Chicago, IL
Molly Sutphen The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching Research Scholar Stanford, CA
Todd Uhlmann National Student Nurses Association (NSNA) President Brooklyn, NY
Tener Veneema Disaster Preparedness Expert Associate Professor of Clinical Nursing University of Rochester Rochester, NY
Mary Wakefield Institute of Medicine (IOM) Chair of Quality Chasm Series Health Care Services Board, Associate Dean for Rural Health, University of North Dakota Washington, DC
Julia Watkins Council on Social Work Education Executive Director Alexandria, VA
Schools of Nursing that Participated in the Regional Meetings (N=329)
Adelphi University Garden City, NY
Arizona State University Phoenix, AZ
Arkansas State University State University, AR
Armstrong Atlantic State University Savannah, GA
Ashland University Ashland, OH
Auburn University Auburn, AL
Auburn University at Montgomery Montgomery, AL
Avila University Kansas City, MO
Azusa Pacific University Azusa, CA
Baker University Topeka, KS
Ball State University Muncie, IN
Baptist Memorial College of Health Sciences Memphis, TN
BarnesJewish College of Nursing St. Louis, MO
Barry University Miami Shores, FL
Baylor University Dallas, TX
Becker College Worcester, MA
Bemidji State University Bemidji, MN
BethuneCookman University Daytona Beach, FL
Binghamton University Binghamton, NY
Biola University La Mirada, CA
Boise State University Boise, ID
Boston College Chestnut Hill, MA
Bradley University Peoria, IL
Brenau University Gainesville, GA
Brigham Young University Provo, UT
BryanLGH College of Health Sciences Lincoln, NE
California Baptist University Riverside, CA
California State University Channel Islands Camarillo, CA
California State UniversityBakersfield Bakersfield, CA
California State UniversityChico Chico, CA
California State UniversityDominguez Hills Carson, CA
California State UniversityEast Bay Hayward, CA
California State UniversityFullerton Fullerton, CA
California State UniversityLong Beach Long Beach, CA
California State UniversityLos Angeles Los Angeles, CA
California State UniversitySan Bernardino San Bernardino, CA
California State UniversitySan Marcos San Marcos, CA
California State UniversityStanislaus Turlock, CA
Capital University Columbus, OH
Carlow University Pittsburgh, PA
CarsonNewman College Jefferson City, TN
Cedar Crest College Allentown, PA
Central Connecticut State University New Britain, CT
Chamberlain College of Nursing Columbus, OH
Charleston Southern University Charleston, SC
Clayton State University Morro, GA
Clemson University Clemson, SC
Coe College Cedar Rapids, IA
ColbySawyer College New London, NH
College of Saint Catherine St. Paul, MN
Creighton University Omaha,, NE
Cumberland University Lebanon, TN
Curry College Milton, MA
Drexel University Philadelphia, PA
Duke University Durham, NC
Duquesne University Pittsburgh, PA
East Carolina University Greenville, NC
East Tennessee State University Johnson City, TN
Eastern Illinois University Charleston, IL
Eastern Kentucky University Richmond, KY
Eastern Mennonite University Harrisonburg, VA
Eastern Michigan University Ypsilanti, MI
Elmhurst College Elmhurst, IL
Elms College Chicopee, MA
Emmanuel College Boston, MA
Emory University Atlanta, GA
Excelsior College Albany, NY
Fairfield University Fairfield, CT
Fairleigh Dickinson University Teaneck, NJ
Fairmont State University Fairmont, WV
Felician College Lodi, NJ
Florida A&M University Tallahassee, FL
Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton, FL
Florida International University Miami, FL
Florida Southern College Lakeland, FL
Fort Hays State University Hays, KS
Francis Marion University Florence, SC
George Mason University Fairfax, VA
Georgetown University Washington, DC
Georgia College & State University Milledgeville, GA
Georgia Southern University Statesboro, GA
Georgia State University Atlanta, GA
Gonzaga University Spokane, WA
Governors State University University Park, IL
Grand Valley State University Grand Rapids, MI
Grand View College Des Moines, IA
Hope College Holland, MI
Hunter College of CUNY New York, NY
Huntington University Huntington, IN
Husson College Bangor, ME
Idaho State University Pocatello, ID
Illinois Wesleyan University Bloomington, IL
Indiana University Bloomington Bloomington, IL
Indiana University Northwest Gary, IN
Indiana University South Bend South Bend, IN
Indiana University Southeast New Albany, IN
Indiana Wesleyan University Marion, IN
Jacksonville State University Jacksonville, AL
Jacksonville University Jacksonville, FL
James Madison University Harrisonburg, VA
Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, MD
Kaplan University Chicago, IL
Kean University Union, NJ
Kennesaw State University Kennesaw, GA
Keuka College Keuka Park, NY
Lakeview College of Nursing Danville, IL
Lamar University Beaumont, TX
Le Moyne College Syracuse, NY
Linfield College Portland, OR
Loma Linda University Loma Linda, CA
Louisiana College Pineville, LA
Louisiana State University Health Sciences Ctr New Orleans, LA
Lourdes College Sylvania, OH
Luther College Decorah, IA
Lycoming College Williamsport, PA
Lynchburg College Lynchburg, VA
Macon State College Macon, GA
Madonna University Livonia, MI
Martin Methodist College Pulaski, TN
Maryville UniversitySaint Louis St. Louis, MO
Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences Boston, MA
McKendree College Lebanon, IL
McNeese State University Lake Charles, LA
Medcenter One College of Nursing Bismarck, ND
MedCentral College of Nursing Mansfield, OH
Medical College of Georgia Augusta, GA
Medical University of South Carolina Charleston, SC
Mercy College Dobbs Ferry, NY
Metropolitan State University St. Paul, MN
MGH Institute of Health Professions Boston, MA
Michigan State University East Lansing, MI
Milwaukee School of Engineering Milwaukee, WI
Minnesota Intercollegiate Nursing Consortium Northfield, MN
Minnesota State University Mankato Mankato, MN
Mississippi College Clinton, MS
Mississippi University for Women Columbus, MS
Missouri Western State University St. Joseph, MO
Montana State University Bozeman Bozeman, MT
Moravian College Bethlehem, PA
Mount Carmel College of Nursing Columbus, OH
Mount Mercy College Cedar Rapids, IA
Mount Saint Mary’s College Los Angeles, Ca
Muskingum College New Concord, OH
National University La Jolla, CA
Neumann College Aston, PA
New Jersey City University Jersey City, NJ
New Mexico Highlands University Las Vegas, NM
New York University New York, NY
Nicholls State University Thibodaux, LA
North Park University Chicago, IL
Northeastern University Boston, Mass.
Northern Arizona University Flagstaff, AZ
Northern Illinois University DeKalb, IL
Northwest University Kirkland, WA
Notre Dame College South Euclid, OH
Oakland University Rochester, MI
Old Dominion University Norfolk, VA
Oregon Health and Science University Portland, OR
Otterbein College Westerville, OH
Pace University New York, NY
Patty Hanks Shelton School of Nursing Abilene, TX
Piedmont College Demorest, GA
Platt College Aurora, Co
Point Loma Nazarene University San Diego, CA
Purdue University West Lafayette, IN
Queens University of Charlotte Charlotte, NC
Research College of Nursing Kansas City. MO
Regis College Weston, MA
Rhode Island College Providence, RI
Rivier College Nashua, NH
Robert Morris University Moon Township, PA
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Camden, NJ
Sacred Heart University Fairfield, CT
Saginaw Valley State University University Center, MI
Saint Ambrose University Davenport, IA
Saint Anselm College Manchester, NH
Saint Anthony College of Nursing Rockford, IL
Saint Francis Medical Center College of Nursing Peoria, IL
Saint John Fisher College Rochester, NY
Saint Joseph’s College of Maine Standish, ME
Saint Louis University Saint Louis, MO
Saint Luke’s College of Nursing Kansas City, MO
Saint Xavier University Chicago, IL
Samford University Birmingham, AL
Samuel Merritt College Oakland, CA
San Diego State University San Diego, CA
San Francisco State University San Francisco, CA
Seattle Pacific University Seattle, WA
Seattle University Seattle, WA
Shenandoah University Winchester, VA
Simmons College Boston, MA
South Dakota State University Brookings, SD
Southeast Missouri State University Cape Girardeau, MO
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville Edwardsville, IL
Southern Nazarene University Bethany, OK
Southern Utah University Cedar City, UT
Stony Brook University Stony Brook, NY
SUNY Downstate Medical Center Brooklyn, NY
SUNY Institute of Technology at Utica/Rome Utica, NY
SUNY Plattsburgh Plattsburgh, NY
SUNY Upstate Medical University Syracuse, NY
Temple University Philadelphia, PA
Tennessee Technological University Cookeville, TN
Tennessee Wesleyan College Knoxville, TN
Texas A&M Health Science Center College Station, TX
Texas A&M UniversityCorpus Christi Corpus Christi, TX
Texas Christian University Fort Worth, TX
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
Texas Woman’s University Denton, TX
The Catholic University of America Washington, DC
The College of St. Scholastica Duluth, MN
The Ohio State University Columbus, OH
The Sage Colleges Troy, NY
The University of Alabama Tuscaloosa, AL
The University of Alabama in Huntsville Huntsville, AL
The University of Louisiana at Lafayette Lafayette, LA
The University of Louisiana at Monroe Monroe, LA
The University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Chapel Hill, NC
Thomas Jefferson University Philadelphia, PA
Touro University Henderson, NV
Tuskegee University Tuskegee, AL
University at Buffalo Buffalo, NY
University of Alabama at Birmingham Birmingham, AL
University of Alabama in Huntsville Huntsville, AL
University of Alaska Anchorage Anchorage, AK
University of Arizona Tuscon, AZ
University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Little Rock, AR
University of ArkansasFayetteville Fayetteville, AR
University of California Davis Davis, CA
University of CaliforniaLos Angeles Los Angeles, CA
University of Central Arkansas Conway, AR
University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, OH
University of Colorado at Colorado Springs Colorado Springs, CO
University of Colorado Denver Aurora, CO
University of Connecticut Storrs, CT
University of Delaware Newark, DE
University of Detroit Mercy Detroit, MI
University of Florida Gainesville, FL University of Hawaii at Manoa Honolulu, HI
University of Illinois at Chicago Chicago, IL
University of Iowa Iowa City, IA
University of Kansas Kansas City, KS
University of Louisiana at Monroe Monroe, LA
University of Louisville Louisville, KY
University of Mary Bismark, ND
University of Maryland Baltimore, MD
University of MassachusettsAmherst Amherst, MA
University of MassachusettsLowell Lowell, MA
University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey Newark, NJ
University of Memphis Memphis, TN
University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI
University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN
University of Mississippi Medical Center Jackson, MS
University of MissouriColumbia Columbia, MO University of MissouriKansas City Kansas City, MO
University of MissouriSaint Louis St. Louis, MO
University of NevadaLas Vegas Las Vegas, NV
University of NevadaReno Reno, NV
University of New Hampshire Durham, NH
University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM
University of North Carolina at Greensboro Greensboro, NC
University of North CarolinaCharlotte Charlotte, NC
University of North Dakota Grand Forks, ND
University of North Florida Jacksonville, FL
University of Northern Colorado Greeley, CO
University of Oklahoma Oklahoma City, OK
University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA
University of Phoenix Phoenix, AZ
University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA
University of Portland Portland, OR
University of Rhode Island Kingston, RI
University of Saint Francis Indiana Fort Wayne, IN
University of Saint Mary Leavenworth, KS
University of San Diego San Diego, CA
University of San Francisco San Francisco, CA
University of South Alabama Mobile, AL
University of South Carolina Columbia, SC
University of South Carolina Aiken Aiken, SC
University of South Carolina Upstate Spartanburg, SC
University of Southern Maine Portland, ME
University of Southern Mississippi Hattiesburg, MS
University of St. Francis Illinois Joliet, IL
University of Tennessee – Knoxville
University of Tennessee Health Science Center Memphis, TN
University of TennesseeChattanooga Chattanooga, TN
University of Texas Health Science Center – Houston Houston, TX
University of Texas Health Science CenterSan Antonio San Antonio, TX
University of TexasEl Paso El Paso, TX
University of TexasTyler Tyler, TX
University of the Incarnate Word San Antonio, TX
University of Toledo Toledo, OH
University of Utah Salt Lake City, UT
University of Vermont Burlington, VT
University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA
University of West Georgia Carrollton, GA
University of WisconsinEau Claire Eau Claire, WI
University of WisconsinGreen Bay Green Bay, WI
University of WisconsinMilwaukee Milwaukee, WI
University of WisconsinOshkosh Oshkosh, WI
University of Wyoming Laramie, WY
Upper Iowa University Fayette, IA
Ursuline College Pepper Pike, OH
Utica College Utica, NY
Valdosta State University Valdosta, GA
Valparaiso University Valparaiso, IN
Vanguard University of Southern California Costa Mesa, CA
Villa Julie College Stevenson, MD
Wagner College Staten Island, NY
Washburn University Topeka, KS
Washington State University Spokane, WA
Waynesburg University Waynesburg, PA
West Chester University
West Chester, PA
West Texas A&M University Canyon, TX
West Virginia University Morgantown, WV
Western Carolina University Cullowhee, NC
Western Kentucky University Bowling Green, KY
Western Michigan University Kalamazoo, MI
Wichita State University Wichita, KS
Widener University Chester, PA
Wilkes University WilkesBarre, PA
William Carey University Hattiesburg, MS
William Jewell College Liberty, MO
William Paterson University Wayne, NJ
Wilmington University New Castle, DE
WinstonSalem State University WinstonSalem, NC
Wisconsin Lutheran College Milwaukee, WI
Wright State University Dayton, OH
Xavier University Cincinnati, OH
Yale University New Haven, CT
York College of Pennsylvania York, PA
Professional Organizations that Participated in the Regional Meetings (N=11)
American Holistic Nurses Association Flagstaff, Arizona
American Nurses Association Silver Spring, MD
Association of Community Health Nursing Educators Wheat Ridge, CO
Association of Perioperative Registered Nurses Denver, CO
Association of Rehabilitation Nurses Glenview, IL
Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools International Philadelphia, PA
International Society of Nurses in Genetics Pittsburgh, PA
Kentucky Board of Nursing Louisville, KY
Minnesota Board of Nursing Minneapolis, MN
National Council of State Boards of Nursing Chicago, IL
National League for Nursing New York, NY
Oncology Nursing Society Pittsburgh, PA
Society of Pediatric Nurses Pensacola, FL
Healthcare Systems that Participated in the Regional Meetings (N= 13)
Advocate Christ Medical Center Oak Lawn, IL
Baptist Memorial Health Care Corporation Memphis, TN
Baptist Memorial Health Care Corporation DeSoto Southaven, MS
Bon Secours Hampton Roads Health System Norfolk, VA
Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta Atlanta, GA
Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center Lebanon, NH
Hospital Corporation of America Nashville, TN
INOVA Health Systems Falls Church, VA
Ovations/ Evercare Minnetonka, MN
Southeast Health District Waycross, GA
St. Mary’s Hospital Passaic, NJ
UPMC St. Margaret’s Pittsburgh, PA
Miriam Hospital Providence, RI
One Dupont Circle • Suite 530 Washington, DC 20036