1. TCP/IP s,tack in which the A,pplication layer gener,ates messa,ges that are 1000 Bytes ,in size,
the Transport layer adds a header that is 20 Bytes in size, the Internet layer adds a header that is 20 Bytes
in size and the, Network layer adds a header 14 Bytes and a trailer 4 Bytes).
What is the percentage of overhead due to headers and trailers?
2. source ,that is sending on/off traffic (as in a square wave). In particular, for 0.5 seconds, it sends
data traffic at a rate of 12 Mbps then it does not send any data traffic for 2 seconds. This process repeats.
If this traffic is, going thro,ugh a router that h,as 10 Mbps c,apa,city and a buffer of size B bits. Answer the
(a) What is, the average throughput achieve,d by thi,s source? (your answer ,should be in Mbps)
(b) How large B should be to, prevent any data loss, (that is to accommodate each square burst and buffer it)?
(c) If we would like ,to remove this buffer, but still would like the source to send the sa,me amount of data
per bu,rst, how would you choose the on period and the data rate?