1.In Pavlov's original classical conditioning experiments, the _____ was the neutral stimulus, the _____ was the stimulus that would elicit a reflex, and _____ was the reflexive response.
A)meat powder; bell; salivation
B)salivation; meat powder; ringing the bell
C)bell; meat powder; salivation
D)meat powder; salivation; ringing the bell
2.Eli's grandma gives him a Tootsie roll every time she visits. When Eli sees his grandma arriving, his mouth begins to water. In this example, the conditioned stimulus (CS) is _____.
C)the Tootsie roll
D)the watering mouth
3.A baby is bitten by a dog and then is afraid of all small animals. This is an example of _____.
4.Mark and Kathy take their 2-year-old son to the supermarket every Saturday. Each week, the same sequence of events unfolds: Their son screams, demanding that they buy him treats. Although they refuse to give in to his demands, he continues to scream. Finally, either Mark or Kathy gets in their son's face and yells at the top of their lungs “Shut up!” He stops screaming instantly. What operant conditioning concepts are illustrated in this story?
A) The parents are using negative reinforcement to increase their son's screaming.
B) The parents are in a very dysfunctional marriage; their child's screaming is his way of trying to get his parents to remain married.
C) The parents are using punishment to suppress the screaming; their use of punishment is negatively reinforced by the cessation of screaming.
D) Their son probably learned how to scream by observing his parents at home, and now he is reinforced on a variable-interval schedule of reinforcement.
5. Your dog is begging for food while you eat dinner. Your mother gives him a morsel from her plate, and he stops barking. In this situation, your dog has been _____, and your mother has been _____.
A)classically conditioned; punished
B)operantly conditioned; positively reinforced
C)positively reinforced; negatively reinforced
D)negatively reinforced; punished
6.Dan and Jenny spank Nolan when he pulls the dog's tail. They are using _____ to teach Jimmy not to pull the dog's tail.
7.Based on cognitive-social learning theory, which of the following is the BEST slogan to present to a class for parents who want their children to adopt their standards of behavior?
A)Silence is golden.
B)Do as I say, not as I do.
C)Because I said so.
D)Follow my lead.
8.B. F. Skinner conducted an experiment that suggested that a behavior that is repeated because it is thought to cause a desired effect, even when there is no connection between the behavior and the effect is called _____.
9.This is a factor that increases the modeling effects of violent video games.
A)Videos are interactive.
B)Videos are engrossing to the player.
C)Video players identify with the aggressor in the game.
D)all of these options
10.Professor Miller gives a quiz once a week but he never tells students on what day the quiz will be given. This is a _____ schedule.
11.The process of translating information into neural language that will be retained in memory is called _____.
12.One difference identified between human memory processes and computer memory processes is _____.
A)a computer “memory” is more fragile
B)human processes occur simultaneously whereas computer processes occur sequentially
C)human memory occurs sequentially whereas computer processes occur simultaneously
D)human memory has a natural limit of capacity
13.In the three-stage memory model, which of the following is the CORRECT memory pathway?
A) LTM® STM ®Sensory memory
B) perceptual memory® LTM ®STM
C) working memory® perceptual memory ®Sensory memory
D)perceptual memory® LTM ® STM ®Sensory memory
14.Miguel has an average memory capacity. Which of the following lists is the MOST likely to forget?
A)IBM, CBS, FBI, CIA, NBC, ABC, ESP
B)Karen, Kathy, Katie, Keith, Kevin, Kim,
C)123, 456, 789, 987, 654, 321
D)ZKQ, LMP, TSC, XRJ
15.Yu-Wai just met a woman he feels attracted to. He keeps saying her name over and over to himself to make sure he doesn't forget it. Yu-Wai is using _____ to keep this woman's name in _____ memory.
A)mnemonics; long-term memory
B)a reverberating circuit; sensory memory
C)maintenance rehearsal; short-term memory
D)selective attention; short-term memory